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Tips, Tricks, and Techniques on using Cascading Style Sheets.
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Small Tweaks That Can Make a Huge Impact on Your Website’s Accessibility

Thu, 01/11/2018 - 09:33

For a beginner, accessibility can be daunting. With all of the best intentions in the world, the learning curve to developing compliant, fully accessible websites and apps is huge. It's also hard to find the right advice, because it's an ever-changing and increasingly crowded landscape.

I've written this post to give you some tips on small things that can make a big difference, while hopefully not affecting your development process too much.

Let's dive in!

Document Structure and Semantics

It probably doesn't come as much of a surprise that structuring your HTML in an organized, semantic way will make a big difference. Screen readers rely on a well-structured document in order to follow a coherent narrative, so make sure that you're using the elements that the HTML5 spec provides responsively and effectively.

If you’re unsure about how to markup your work correctly, check out resources such as HTML5 Doctor, Code Academy and of course, CSS-Tricks. You can also check out articles like “Writing HTML with accessibility in mind” and “Semantic Structure” to get you going in the right direction.

Let's look at three specific things that can help ensure a well-structured and semantic document.

Use a Single <main> Element

A good example of building a responsible, semantic document structure is only using one <main> element. This should serve as a signpost for the most important content of the page for your user.

Add an ID to it and offer a skip link in your main <header> like so:

<header role="banner"> <h1>Your main page title</h1> <a href="#main-content">Skip to the main content</a> </header> <!-- Further down the document --> <main id="main-content"> <!-- Put your main body of content in here and other really important stuff --> </main>

This little trick should help your screen reader users out in a big way, because they can go ahead and skip the fancy bits and dive right into your important content. It’s also great for keyboard users for the same reason.

Another nice touch is to add a :focus style to the skip link that makes it visible. Try pressing your tab key on this post. Pretty neat, right?

Use Elements Appropriately

So, <button> elements are a pain in the butt to style right? That doesn’t mean you should attach your JavaScript events to a <div> or an <a href="#"> though. You see, when you use a <button>, you get keyboard events for free. You’re also helping screen reader users out because it’ll announce the element correctly. Check out this example:

document.getElementsByTagName('button')[0].addEventListener('click', evt => { alert('Oh, hey there!'); });

If a user focused on that button and hit the enter key, that event would fire. That makes both yours and the users' lives a bit easier. Well worth it, right?

See the Pen Button click example by Andy Bell (@hankchizljaw) on CodePen.

Get Your Heading Hierarchy Locked-Down

It's really common for screen reader users to navigate a page by using the heading structure. That means we should help them out and create a nice hierarchy for them. Let's take a look at a standard blog post:

<main id="main-content"> <article> <!-- The page title is up in the main <header> in this instance --> <h2>My awesome blog post</h2> <p>Vestibulum id ligula porta felis euismod semper.</p> <p>Vestibulum id ligula porta felis euismod semper.</p> <h3>A sub-section of this post</h3> <p>Vestibulum id ligula porta felis euismod semper.</p> <h4>A sub-section of the sub-section</h4> <p>Vestibulum id ligula porta felis euismod semper.</p> </article> </main>

With that sample, the user can navigate to the start of "My awesome blog post" and then have the ability to skip to sub-sections and nested sub-sections easily. They can also skip back up. It's just a nice way of helping them consume the content you've produced as easily as possible.

It can be recommended that a page has a single <h1> element, even though the W3C HTML5 spec says you can have many. I personally agree with the use of a single <h1>, but you can have many, as long as you follow a nice structure and hierarchy. That's the key here.

Get Your Color Contrast Right

To be WCAG 2.0 AA compliant, you need to have a contrast ratio of 4:5:1 for normal text. This is your paragraphs, buttons, navigation, etc. You need to go for a ratio of 3:1 for larger text, such as headings. I'd say this should be your minimum as it's incredibly achievable with tools such as Tota11y, Contrast and the WebAim contrast checker. You can still get plenty of color balance and variation in your design too.

The reason that contrast is so important is because there's so much variation in environment that you probably don't even consider, such as bright sunlight and poor quality displays. Add this to a visual impairment or, say, a migraine and you're potentially causing problems for your users.

Getting the contrast right will have a huge, positive effect across a wide spectrum of your users.

Responsible Text Labels

We’ve all built out a list of items with a non-descriptive, but visually appealing "More" button, right? More what though? We need to be more responsible with this and provide some context.

One way to achieve this is by visually hiding descriptive text with CSS and hiding the non-descriptive text from screen readers. It’s tempting to use display: none;, but screen readers can ignore elements with that set, so we need to be more creative. I use something like this little helper:

.visually-hidden { display: block; height: 0px; width: 0px; overflow: hidden; clip: rect(1px, 1px, 1px, 1px); visibility: hidden; }

With this CSS in place, we can do something like this:

<a href="/link-to-your-page"> <!-- This is hidden from a screen reader, but visible visually --> <span aria-hidden="true">More</span> <!-- This is visible to a screen reader, but visually hidden --> <span class="visually-hidden">Continue reading: "Your post title here"</span> </a>

A sighted user will only see “More” and a screen reader user will hear “Continue reading: 'Your post title here.'" Both sets of users are happy.

You can also achieve the above by using an aria-label on the <a> tag. This will override the text within for a screen-reader:

<a href="/link-to-your-page" aria-label="Continue reading: 'Your post title here'"> More </a> Small Typography Tweaks With a Big Impact

It's always worth remembering that people with a visual impairment or learning difficulty could be trying to read your content, so some small tweaks to your typography can go a long way.

A body of content such as an article should be sized at 16px (or equivalent unit) at a minimum. It's also worth increasing your line-height to around 1.5 too. Space between lines can help readers with dyslexia to understand your content better. The combination of size and space is also great for older people and/or short-of-sight people. Even small summaries and aside content should be at least 12px (or equivalent unit). Anything smaller than that will alienate users who struggle to read.

Another trick is to highlight key words and phrases if your content is quite complex. This not only benefits users who are slightly slower at processing content but it also helps people who like to scan over an article, like I do.

Lastly on this section, I'd advise you to be careful with your font choices. Fonts with complex ligatures and decorative elements can be really distracting, so maybe limit the usage of those to key, large headings only. It's also been advised that sans-serif fonts are better for readers with dyslexia. Check out this article for more on that and other text formatting tips.

Enhance Keyboard Support

There are a few little tweaks you can do to help users who primarily use their keyboard to navigate your website.

Say you've got a little button that shows a dialogue when you click it. You should attach an event to the escape key that hides it. Here's a sample snippet:

document.addEventListener('keyup', (evt) => { if(evt.keyCode === 27) { // Run whatever code hides your dialogue } });

See the Pen Escape key demo by Andy Bell (@hankchizljaw) on CodePen.

Another tweak you can do for our keyboard-navigating buddies is not hiding focus from them. Browsers give us focus states for free with outline. I know it can look ugly, but hot-damn it’s useful for keyboard users. If you want to get rid of that blue glow, I get it—just please use the :focus pseudo selector to add an obvious state change to it instead. Here's a sample:

.your-element { background: red; } .your-element:focus { outline: none; /* Reset the default */ box-shadow: 0 0 0 3px black; /* A very obvious state change */ } Don't Rely on Color Alone to Communicate State Changes

Let’s end on a really important one. Color shouldn’t be relied upon alone to communicate state changes. Take this scenario as an example:

You’ve got a button that posts a form. You wrote some neat JavaScript that makes it go grey while it sends the data. It then either turns green or red, depending on what the status is.

For a colorblind user, this is a nightmare. To them, the button may have barely changed enough for them to notice, so they may just keep clicking and clicking while getting really frustrated. This isn’t ideal.

So, instead of relying on color, let’s enhance that with a status message that supports the button’s state on response.

See the Pen Enhanced state change communication demo by Andy Bell (@hankchizljaw) on CodePen.

That sample is a great way to quickly communicate to the user that something has changed and the use of color, text and iconography clearly communicates that change. Disabling the button whilst the response is processed is also a great help to the user.

Wrapping Up

These little tips should make a big difference to your users, and I hope you dive into your projects and implement some of them.

You should also keep learning about accessibility. I recommend following people such as Heydon Pickering, Scott O’Hara, Laura Kalbag, and Rob Dobson on Twitter. I also recommend that you check out resources such as Inclusive Components and the A11y Project.

The greater your knowledge gets, the better your websites and products will be for a much wider audience. That can only be a good thing, right?

Small Tweaks That Can Make a Huge Impact on Your Website’s Accessibility is a post from CSS-Tricks

Categories: Web Technologies

​Incapsula’s Global DDoS Threat Landscape Report

Thu, 01/11/2018 - 09:32

(This is a sponsored post.)

The newly released Q3 2017 Global DDoS Threat Landscape Report features insights on attacks and mitigation. These are some of the key findings:

  • Bitcoin was one of the most targeted industries
  • High packet rate attacks grew more common
  • A third of network layer attacks were highly persistent
  • Botnet activity out of India and Turkey continued to climb

Learn about the top attacked countries, industries, and vectors here and how to protect your site with Incapsula.

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​Incapsula’s Global DDoS Threat Landscape Report is a post from CSS-Tricks

Categories: Web Technologies

HTML 5.2 is Done, HTML 5.3 is Coming

Wed, 01/10/2018 - 11:48

The W3C has completed its second round of HTML5 recommendations for implementation. The entire announcement is worth a read because there are interesting tidbits that provide more context and personnel changes within W3C, but the highlights of this recommendation are nicely summed up:

Many of the features added integrate other work done in W3C. The Payment Request API promises to make commerce on the Web far easier, reducing the risks of making a mistake or being caught by an unscrupulous operator. New security features such as Content Security Policy protect users more effectively, while new work incorporated from ARIA helps developers offer people with disabilities a good user experience of their applications.

There are also semantic changes to HTMl elements that are worth noting:

Clarifications and bug fixes bring the HTML Recommendation closer to what has been deployed recently. The definition for the main element has been updated to support modern responsive design patterns, the style element can be used inside the body element. Numerous constraints on code have been loosened, while where necessary for interoperability or security a few have been carefully reinforced.

And, spoiler alert! HTML 5.3 is officially in its first public working draft.

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HTML 5.2 is Done, HTML 5.3 is Coming is a post from CSS-Tricks

Categories: Web Technologies

react-perf-devtool

Wed, 01/10/2018 - 11:48

Here’s an interesting and super useful Chrome extension by Nitin Tulswani that measures React component performance:

React Performance Devtool is a browser extension for inspecting the performance of React Components. It statistically examines the performance of React components based on the measures which are collected by React using window.performance API. Along with the browser extension, the measures can also be inspected in a console.

Also, if you’re interested in learning more about the process of this tool, there’s a great thread that digs into the history of the project.

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react-perf-devtool is a post from CSS-Tricks

Categories: Web Technologies

The latest ways to deal with the cascade, inheritance and specificity

Wed, 01/10/2018 - 06:24

The cascade is such an intrinsic part of CSS that they put it right there in the name. If you’ve ever needed to use !important to affect specificity in the cascade, you’ll know that it can be a tricky thing to deal with. In the early days of CSS, it was common to see highly specific selectors like this:

#sidebar ul li {}

We’re all much better at managing specificity nowadays. It’s a widely accepted best practice to keep specificity low and flat—to shun ID selectors, to make liberal use of classes, and to avoid unnecessary nesting. But there are still plenty of situations where a more specific selector will be useful. With the introduction of a newly proposed pseudo-class, more support of the shadow DOM, and the use of the all property, we will soon be able to handle inheritance and specificity in new and exciting ways.

The :is Pseudo-Class

Lea Verou recently proposed this new pseudo-class specifically designed to control specificity. It’s already made its way to the CSS Level 4 Selectors spec. Lea has a write up of why it’s useful and there’s some coverage of it in the CSS-Tricks almanac.

Let’s take :not as an example. The specificity of :not is equal to the specificity of its argument. This makes using :not rather painful. Take the following as an example:

See the Pen :not and specificity by CSS-Tricks (@css-tricks) on CodePen.

We might expect that the .red class would have higher specificity because it is lower in the cascade. However, for any styles to override div:not(.foobar) they would need to at least match the specificity of a combined element selector (div) and class selector (.foobar). Another approach would be div.red, but there is a better way. This is where :is can help.

div:is(:not(.foobar)) { background-color: black; }

The :not selector no longer adds any specificity, so the total specificity of the above selector is simply that of one element selector (div). The .red class would now be able to override it in the cascade. Once implemented, specificity hacks will be a thing of the past.

Shadow DOM

Today, many people are using classes in HTML like this:

<form class="site-search site-search--full"> <input type="text" class="site-search__field"> <button type="Submit" class="site-search__button">search</button> </form>

When using shadow DOM, rather than following a verbose naming convention, we’ll be able to omit classes altogether. Styles defined within the shadow DOM are scoped to apply only within the component. Styling can be achieved with simple element selectors without worrying about whether the selectors will interfere with elements elsewhere on the page.

See the Pen shadow dom by CSS GRID (@cssgrid) on CodePen.

It’s liberating to write such easy CSS. No more effort spent naming things. Shadow DOM looks like it is finally making its way to full browser support. It's likely to make it into the next release of Firefox while Edge have implementation as a high priority.

This browser support data is from Caniuse, which has more detail. A number indicates that browser supports the feature at that version and up.

DesktopChromeOperaFirefoxIEEdgeSafari5340NoNoNoTPMobile / TabletiOS SafariOpera MobileOpera MiniAndroidAndroid ChromeAndroid Firefox11.0-11.2NoNo6262No The all Property

The all property is a way of setting all CSS properties at once—everything from align-content to z-index. What values does it accept? I can’t think of any use case when I’d want all properties to inherit, but that’s an option. Then there’s initial which is more like applying a CSS reset where all the styles are gone. No padding. No margin. The initial value is set per property, regardless of the element it is applied to. The initial value of display is inline, even if you apply it to a div. The font-style of an em tag is normal, as is the font-weight of a strong tag. Link text will be black. You get the idea. (You can find the initial value of any CSS property on MDN.) This does perhaps limit its usefulness, going further than we might like by removing all styles, regardless of context.

See the Pen all: initial by CSS GRID (@cssgrid) on CodePen.

Sadly, the most useful value for all is also the least widely implemented: revert. It can remove the styles that you as a developer have applied, while leaving the default user-agent styles intact. We’ve all seen a page of HTML without a stylesheet—black Times New Roman on a white (transparent) background with blue underlined links. If you really want to avoid inheritance, then all: revert has you covered. All divs will be display: block and spans will be inline. All em tags will be italic and strong tags will be bold. Links will be blue and underlined.

See the Pen all: revert by CSS GRID (@cssgrid) on CodePen.

This browser support data is from Caniuse, which has more detail. A number indicates that browser supports the feature at that version and up.

DesktopChromeOperaFirefoxIEEdgeSafariNoNoNoNoNo9.1Mobile / TabletiOS SafariOpera MobileOpera MiniAndroidAndroid ChromeAndroid Firefox9.3NoNoNoNoNo The future?

CSS-in-JS is a cry for help. We at @csswg should pay attention to this and address the issues before it gets worse.https://t.co/lWQ4ct61ir

— Lea Verou (@LeaVerou) May 24, 2017


The miscellany of rival unstandardized methods for writing CSS-in-JS was an attempt to sidestep these same issues. That approach has gained popularity over the last several years. Some of its proponents have deemed inheritance, the cascade and specificity as fundamentally flawed design decisions of the language. The CSS Working Group at the W3C is responding by improving the power of CSS and the native web platform. It will be interesting to see the outcome…

The latest ways to deal with the cascade, inheritance and specificity is a post from CSS-Tricks

Categories: Web Technologies

Making CSS Animations Feel More Natural

Tue, 01/09/2018 - 07:59

It used to be that designers designed and coders coded. There was no crossover, and that’s the way it was. But with the advent of CSS transitions and animations, those lines are blurring a bit. It’s no longer as simple as the designer dictating the design and the coder transcribing—designers must now know something about code, and coders must know something about design in order to effectively collaborate.

As an example, let’s say a designer asks a developer to make a box bounce. That’s it—no additional instruction. Without some cross-knowledge and a common vocabulary, both sides are a little lost in this communication: the developer doesn’t have enough information to fully realize the designer’s vision, but the designer doesn’t really know what the options are and how to communicate them. With a very basic interpretation, you might end up with something that looks like this:

See the Pen Bouncing Box 1 by Brandon Gregory (@pulpexploder) on CodePen.

Not very exciting. Although, to be fair, this does meet all of the criteria given. We can definitely do better than this, though.

The first thing to look at is the timing function. In the above example, we’re using a linear timing function, which means that the box is constantly moving at the same speed. In some cases, this is desirable; however, in the real world, motion usually doesn’t work like that.

An easy fix is to simply change the timing function to ease. This makes the beginning and ending of each animation a little slower than the middle part, which adds a more natural look to some animations. Here’s the box with the easing function turned on:

See the Pen Bouncing Box 2 by Brandon Gregory (@pulpexploder) on CodePen.

This is a slight improvement, but there’s still a lot of work to be done. The box still looks mechanical and stiff, with the same animation occurring in the same timeframe over and over. Adding a slight delay between bounces adds some visual contrast that seems a little more natural:

See the Pen Bouncing Box 3 by Brandon Gregory (@pulpexploder) on CodePen.

The box now looks like it’s jumping rather than simply moving up and down. There’s a little wind-up and cool-down between jumps that mimics what a live creature might do if given the same instruction. Even though we have no reference for what a jumping box would look like, we all have a pretty good idea of what a jumping creature would look like. Because we know what would happen in nature, by mimicking that, the animation feels more natural. But we can do more to make that wind-up feel a little more weighty.

If you watch cartoons, you’ll notice that natural movements are often exaggerated, creating a caricature of real life. When done well, this can feel just as natural as something in the real world, with the added bonus of infusing a little charm and character into the animation.

At this stage, collaboration between the designer and developer is crucial — but many designers may not even be aware that these options exist. It may be up to the developer to pitch this possibility to the designer.

By adding some subtle distortion to the scale of the box, we can add a lot to the animation:

See the Pen Bouncing Box 4 by Brandon Gregory (@pulpexploder) on CodePen.

Now, the box has character. It feels alive. There are many things to tweak, but this is already moving much farther than the original instruction — in a very good way!

We’re going to go a step further and add a little rebound at the end of the jump:

See the Pen Bouncing Box 5 by Brandon Gregory (@pulpexploder) on CodePen.

The second bounce is making this feel more alive, but something still seems off. The bounce looks stiff compared to the rest of the animation. We need to add another bit of distortion like we did for the wind-up:

See the Pen Bouncing Box 6 by Brandon Gregory (@pulpexploder) on CodePen.

That subtle distortion at the end makes the rebound seem much more natural. Overall, a huge improvement from our basic linear bounce in the first example.

That right there may be exactly what we’re looking for, but further tweaks to the rate of movement can be made with a custom cubic Bézier curve:

See the Pen Bouncing Box 7 by Brandon Gregory (@pulpexploder) on CodePen.

Without both the designer and the developer aware of basic animation principles and controls, this level of customization is impossible. Really, this article just scratches the surface of both fields. If you’re a web designer or a web developer who works with designers, I’d strongly urge you to read up on both.

For animation principles, The Illusion of Life: Disney Animation by Ollie Johnston and Frank Thomas is a great primer on how to make that caricature of real life seem alive and real. With that common language in place, communication and collaboration between designers and developers becomes much easier.

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For the technical controls and variations of CSS animation, the possibilities are nearly endless. Delay and timing are simple to adjust. As mentioned, if you don’t like the out-of-the-box ease timing function, it’s very possible to create your own using a cubic-bezier(). You can also adjust the level of distortion you want to bring the animation closer to or further from reality. The important thing is that both the designer and developer are thinking about these variations rather than blindly taking everything without customization. Shared knowledge and collaboration can make even simple animations into great ones.

More Resources

Making CSS Animations Feel More Natural is a post from CSS-Tricks

Categories: Web Technologies

WordPress User Survey Data for 2015-2017

Mon, 01/08/2018 - 12:54

A grand total of 77,609 responses from WordPress users and professionals collected by Automattic between 2015 and 2017. The stats for 2015 and 2016 have been shared at the annual State of the Word address and 2017 marks the first time they have been published on WordPress News.

A few items that caught my attention at first glance:

  • Between 66% and 75% of WordPress users installed WordPress on their own. In other words, they were savvy enough to do it without the help of a developer. Hosting providers were next up and clocked in at 13-14% of installs.
  • WordPress professionals described their clients as large and enterprise companies only 6-7% of the time. I guess this makes sense if those companies are relying on in-house resourcing, but I still would have pegged this higher.
  • What do users love most about WordPress? It's simple and user-friendly (49-52%). What frustrates them most about it? Plugins and themes (19-28%). Seems like those two would go hand-in-hand to some degree.

I'm not a statistician and have no idea how much the results of these surveys accurately reflect the 26% of all sites on the internet that are powered by WordPress, but it sure is interesting.

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WordPress User Survey Data for 2015-2017 is a post from CSS-Tricks

Categories: Web Technologies

Careful Now

Mon, 01/08/2018 - 12:52

Tom Warren's "Chrome is turning into the new Internet Explorer 6" for The Verge has a title that, to us front-end web developers, suggests that Chrome is turning into a browser far behind in technology and replete with tricky bugs. Aside from the occasional offhand generic, "Chrome is getting so bad lately," comments you hear, we know that's not true. Chrome often leads the pack for good web tech.

Instead, it's about another equally concerning danger: developers building sites specifically for Chrome. In theory, that's not really a thing thing, because if you build a website with web standards (of which there isn't really much of an alternative) it'll work in Chrome like any other modern web browser. But it is a thing if you build the site to somehow block other browsers and only allow Chrome. Warren:

Google has been at the center of a lot of “works best with Chrome” messages we’re starting to see appear on the web. Google Meet, Allo, YouTube TV, Google Earth, and YouTube Studio Beta all block Windows 10’s default browser, Microsoft Edge, from accessing them and they all point users to download Chrome instead. Google Meet, Google Earth, and YouTube TV are also not supported on Firefox with messages to download Chrome.

I wouldn't call it an epidemic but it's not a good trend. Best I can tell, it's server-side UA sniffing that entirely blocks the sites:

Sheesh.

If anything, I'd think you'd just let people use the site and display a warning if you're really worried some particular feature might not work. Or even better, fix it. I have no behind-the-scenes knowledge of why they made the choice to block certain browsers, but it's hard to imagine a technical limitation that would force it. And if it is, I'd suggest letting it be very publicly known to incentivize the other browsers to support what is needed, assuming it's an established standard.

Even more concerning than browser-specific websites is seeing browsers ship non-standardized features just because they want them, not behind any vendor prefix or flag. There was a time when web developers would have got out the pitchforks if a browser was doing this, but I sense some complacency seeping in.

These days, the vibe is more centered around complaining about other browsers lack of support for things. For example, one browser ships something, we see one green dot in caniuse, and we lambast the other browsers to catch up. Instead, we might ask, was it a good idea to ship that feature yet?

No modern browser is shipping vendor prefixes anymore since we all ultimately decided that was a bad idea. A side effect of that is that shipping a new feature in CSS or JavaScript is all the riskier. I would think shipping an unprefixed feature to a stable version of the browser would mean the feature is standardized and not going to significantly change. Yet, it's been happening.

In CSS, Chrome shipped motion-* properties, but then that all changed to offset-*, and the old motion-* properties just stopped working. That's more than just annoying, that kind of thing helps developers justify saying, "I just build this site for Chrome, if you wanna use it, use Chrome." Fine for a demo, perhaps, but bad for the web industry as a whole. Again, I have no special insight into why this happens, I'm just a developer looking in from the outside.

Here's another CSS one I just saw the other day. People are excited about text-decoration-skip: ink; because it looks great and helps people. They are using it a lot. But apparently, that's not the correct name for it? It's been changed to text-decoration-skip-ink: auto; and so Chrome 64 is canning text-decoration-skip: ink; which is confusing even to people at Google.

Chris Krycho had a take on it recently as well:

Over the past few years, I’ve increasingly seen articles with headlines that run something like, “New Feature Coming To the Web” — followed by content which described how Chrome had implemented an experimental new feature. “You’ll be able to use this soon!” has been the promise.

The reality is a bit more complicated. Sometimes, ideas the Chrome team pioneers make their way out to the rest of the browsers and become tools we can all use. Sometimes… they get shelved because none of the other browsers decide to implement them.

Many times, when this latter tack happens, developers grouse about the other browser makers who are “holding the web back.” But there is a fundamental problem in this way of looking at things: Chrome isn’t the standard. The fact that Chrome proposes something, and even the fact that a bunch of developers like it, does not a standard make. Nor does it impose an obligation to other browsers to prioritize it, or even to ship it.

This isn't all to throw Chrome under the bus. I'm a Chrome fan. I'm sure there are examples from all the major vendors in the same vein. I'd just like my two cents to be careful now. The web is the best platform to build for and generally heading in a direction that makes that even truer. The easiest way to screw that up is not being careful with standards.

Careful Now is a post from CSS-Tricks

Categories: Web Technologies

Tales of a Non-Unicorn: A Story About the Roller Coaster of Job Searching

Mon, 01/08/2018 - 07:51

Hey there! It's Lara, author of the infamous"Tales of a Non-Unicorn: A Story About the Trouble with Job Titles and Descriptions" from a couple years back. If you haven't read that original article, I recommend skimming it to give you some context for this one, but I think you'll still find value here even if you don't.

A lot has happened since I wrote that article in 2015, and this follow-up has been in the works for a good six months. I ended up, not with a solution for the job titles conundrum or a manifesto about the importance of HTML and CSS, rather a simple, honest story about my roller coaster ride.

Okay, enough dilly-dally. Let's go!

<story>

In the aftermath of the FizzBuzz drama in 2015, I doubled down on my freelance business and did really well. I got a great contract gig with startup in New York refactoring a Haml/Bootstrap situation that paid the bills and then some. I hired an assistant and started the Tackle Box, an online school sort-of-thing where I taught web development and WordPress. I made a little money off that one, too. I spoke at a handful of conferences and meetups, taught a bunch of classes, and generally had the pedal to the metal.

Then I got really, really tired.

I was sick of writing emails, sick of sending invoices, and sick of being on the computer all the damn time. I wanted to go to work and then leave work at work; something that is very hard to do in our industry, and extra difficult when you are your own boss. I enjoyed coding sometimes, but it was all about the billable hour. Why should I write code or be on the computer at all if I'm not being paid for it? This was burnout, that thing that's become a weird, convoluted rite of passage in our industry.

I wanted to shut down Lara Schenck, LLC and be a ski bum. And you know what? I did. It was time for a break, and I took one for about six months.

Ski Bum Sabbatical

I left New York City in August of 2016 and moved back to my family's farm near Pittsburgh. I got a job cleaning horse stalls for $7/hr at the stable where I used to ride when I was a kid. My plan was to gradually ramp down business while I lived rent-free and prepared myself for the simple life. That December, I would be starting work as a bartender at Goldminer's Daughter Lodge in Alta, Utah, a tiny ski town outside of Salt Lake City. Room and board were included in the job; I'd make enough pocket money for booze, and my life would consist of skiing, sleeping, and socializing. No emails.

Just down the winding road from Alta Ski Area.

The simple life was okay for a little bit, but bartending at a 3:2 beer bar and skiing every day wasn't as fulfilling as I'd hoped. I cut the season short and moved to Los Angeles in March with my partner at the time. We had a mutual friend with an open room in Hollywood, and I was starved for city-living. (I have since learned that LA is not the city-living I expected, at all, but that's another conversation.)

Time to Get a Job (for real this time)

I formally announced I was back on the scene, reached out to old clients and people from my New York network, and was even on a podcast out of the gate. None of that translated into much paying work. Luckily, I had a cushion of savings to float me for a few months (Freelancing Rule #1: You must have savings), but my heart just wasn't in the freelance hustle this time. The prospect of negotiating contracts and engaging new leads was nauseating rather than exciting, and the small business website work I did was no longer the challenging and invigorating experience it had been before.

I decided to get a full-time job, for real this time. Once again, I wanted to work on a team and on bigger projects. I was tired of doing everything myself, and I wanted to learn from and share my experience with others. And, you know, a regular paycheck.

I set to work applying for jobs, putting long hours into carefully crafted cover letters. I had several promising interviews, got my hopes way up a couple of times, and received zero job offers. For one particular role, I'd gotten as far as discussing salary requirements and start dates, and was expecting an offer letter within the week. Then, the next week they were all of a sudden no longer hiring. I didn't run into any FizzBuzz, for better or for worse.

I started to question why my designer/developer skillset appeared to hold so little value now when I'd felt so in demand just a year ago. I stubbornly refused to learn React just so I could have it on my resume—I'm great at other important things, why can't people see that?! I wondered whether the five years of self-employment was a hindrance, or was there something fundamentally wrong with how I interviewed? Did I shoot myself in the foot with this whole "non-unicorn" thing in the first place?

These months were a major ego-check. It turns out, full-time jobs aren't something you can just "get." It's just not that easy, for me at least.

The Value of HTML and CSS

Responding to job posts with those carefully crafted cover letters had a very low return on investment so I decided to change my approach. Instead of putting my time into writing said cover letters, I would focus on writing about real things and becoming a better developer, and the jobs would come to me. I launched a well-thought-out redesign of my website, published a Reverse Job Post, and buckled down on my JavaScript studies.

This was right around the time Mandy Michael wrote "Is there any value in people who cannot write JavaScript?" which hit the nail on the head. I wrote a question into ShopTalk show about this phenomenon and mentioned to Chris that I'd love to come on the show and talk about it if they'd like. The next day, Chris invited both Mandy and me to come on the show and hash it out:

HTML and CSS are valuable, but intimate knowledge of them has become more of a specialist role. Perhaps, one can position their skills as HTML, CSS, plus something else (e.g. UI design or WordPress). The nature of products and rapid feature releases deem quality HTML and CSS an afterthought at many companies so at the moment, maybe the demand just isn't there. Perhaps the rise in accessibility awareness, design systems, and time lost debugging bad CSS will change the tide?

The episode was well received; I was obviously not the only one struggling with this issue. I made a Github repository called Front-end Discourse with the intention of gathering and synthesizing opinions and coming up with a plan of action on the job titles front. Chris even wrote about the job titles conundrum here on CSS-Tricks. The momentum was there; this could be my thing!

But then...I let it die.

An Unexpected Twist

A few days after the ShopTalk episode came out, I received this tweet:

Umm...that's a link to a Google job post.

I thought it was a joke at first, but nope, the tweet author sent me an email later that day, and it was the real deal! They'd been referred to me by a benevolent figure in the web industry whom I'd never met. I had a call with them and another member of their team, and it was magical. They told me all about a new team starting within Developer Relations at Google that would be working to improve the "Web Content Ecosystem." Web Content Ecosystem? That's WordPress! And they were recruiting me! Holy sh#t, this actually happens!

This was my dream job, not a front-end designer/developer role. I didn't even know this was a job! I had already been doing this work on my own time for several years: teaching and speaking about WordPress, writing informational blog posts, recording videos, and helping people use WordPress more responsibly. And they would move me to San Francisco! I was not a huge fan of Los Angeles.

Unfortunately, Google doesn't just "give" people jobs...you have to interview.

Computer Science Bootcamp

Now we have me, the designer who applied for a JS job and failed FizzBuzz, preparing for the Google interview otherwise known as the grandparent of all technical white-boarding interviews. It was time to swallow any feelings I had toward this interviewing style and get to work.

I had three weeks until a "coaching call" that would unofficially determine whether or not I could skip the technical phone screening and jump straight to the day of on-site interviews because, duh, this was meant to be. Luckily, this coincided with a lull in freelance work, which had also been picking up, so for about a week and a half, I put myself through a self-directed computer science bootcamp. On the way, I wrote a bunch of blog posts about what I learned.

Oh, how I longed to write that Tales of a Non-Unicorn: I GOT A JOB AT GOOGLE, F@#KERS!!! follow-up for all those Reddit haters after it was said and done!

The day of the coaching call arrived, and it was fantastic! I was a little slow on the coding question, but it wasn't as hard as I'd thought, I aced the role-related questions, and the interviewer was excellent. I heard back from the recruiter who was coordinating with me, and he said I could go straight to the on-site interviews.

In the meantime, I went to WordCamp US in Nashville where this particular team at Google was a sponsor. I got to meet a few of the folks I'd be working with, and it seemed like such a great fit. This Google interest and being at WordCamp made me question why, at the beginning of my job search, I had seen my knowledge of WordPress as such a secondary skillset. WordPress is everywhere! And its awesome! I mean, sure, it's not that "cool" yet, but mark my words, it will be in the "cool" ranks soon enough.

The Non-Unicorn Interviews at Google

In the week leading up to the interview, I focused on researching the role and beefing up my passion for improving WordPress and helping those who work with it. This was not a software engineering role, after all; in Developer Relations, passion for and knowledge of your subject is more important than knowing binary tree traversal, right?

Google flew me to San Francisco and put me up in a nice hotel. I had a full day of four interviews—usually, it's five, one was canceled—and a long, enjoyable lunch with the folks I'd been in touch with from the get-go. I didn't feel great about my performance in the technical parts of the interviews, but I did my best and my strategy was to come off as a great coworker who knows when to ask for help. When in doubt, I remembered the strong correlation between "hard interview" and "received offer" on Google's Glassdoor profile.

Back in LA, freelance work kept me busy while I waited for a verdict, which wasn't long. I felt relatively zen about the whole thing. Yes, I had my hopes up, but if it didn't work out, I at least had work to pay the bills, and it wasn't going half-bad. I'd been contracting with an agency and learning a lot; it wasn't the small business WordPress sites I'd been building all by myself previously.

The Thursday after my Monday interview, I got a call from my recruiter contact. They were not going to proceed with the approval process at this time. He said I showed some very promising "Google-y" qualities, but my performance in the coding portion of the interviews wasn't strong enough. He said he had it in his calendar to reconnect with me in six months, and that he would keep an eye out for less technical roles that might be a better fit.

...oof.

Incredibly, I was able to fend off the majority of the anger and the "I'm a failure and I suck at everything" thoughts that go hand-in-hand with rejection, maybe in part because I received such a nice email from one of the people I'd been in touch with throughout the process. He had applied three times before he got a job there—which apparently is not uncommon—and this simply meant I'd be taking a slightly different path. They were all bummed I didn't make it.

This brings us back to the present. I don't feel sour about algorithms or white-boarding interviews...I have another one to get ready for in six months! Unless, of course, another really awesome opportunity comes my way in the meantime. Who knows.

This whole job search has been such a ridiculous roller coaster of hopes slowly going up then crashing down. If there's one thing I've learned, it's that I still don't know where I'll end up, but I'm doing my best and I'll keep doing it until the right thing comes along.

</story>

Whew, that was a lot! Thanks for making it this far. A+ for you, reader!

Post-Mortem

Before I wrap this thing up, I want to make a few observations about this whole job searching process that I hope can help others on their roller coaster ride.

  1. Algorithms and white-boarding interviews aren't necessarily bad. I think they can be implemented badly. The Big Tech Companies are fully aware that they miss out on great candidates because of algorithm questions, but this interviewing strategy is so good at filtering out bad candidates that they keep it around. It sucks for us, but I don't see that changing anytime soon. Plus, I learned a hell of a lot of stuff preparing for it, and it's made me a better developer and better human being.
  2. Write a "Reverse Job Post." I don't recall where I learned about it, but here's mine for reference. Even if no one reads it, it's a great way to figure out what type of job and company you are looking for, and you could totally paste a link to it in the cover letter field for an application and call it a day.
  3. Learn computer science fundamentals. I know we are already inundated with things to learn, so it's hard to preach this, but having context for what the tools we use actually are has helped me a lot. For example, two months ago I would have had a hard time wrapping my mind around GraphQL, but in my interview preparation I learned about graphs and tree data structures, so I was able to understand the concept relatively easily. Cracking the Coding Interview is not a good place to start, BaseCS and the Impostor's Handbook are. Also, stay tuned for some relevant articles here on CSS-Tricks, from yours truly!
  4. Don't spend all of your time on job boards. It's a crapshoot. I think there are great job boards, but in general, no matter how quality the listing, whether or not the position is actually available or accurately represented in the post is a toss-up.
  5. Be vocal. I doubt any of this Google stuff would have happened if I hadn't written into ShopTalk show and asked Chris to have me on the episode. If you have an impulse to write something or have a question or feel the urge to tweet at someone you don't know, do it (but be a good person about it, obviously). The more web people that know you exist, the more likely it is that something will come your way.

Those are some things that helped me, but I still don't have a job, so maybe don't listen to what I say. I don't know. It's an incredibly difficult and demeaning process, and there's no secret sauce that works for everyone. Our industry is a young one, and as far as I'm aware, there is no such thing as a surefire career path in web development.

I hope I don't write another "Tales of a Non-Unicorn" installment. The whole idea of a "unicorn" is bogus, anyway. We are all just people, with different levels of knowledge in different areas, and if you can honestly say you're doing your best then I think that's all you can do.

What I will be writing, however, are some "Computer Science Study Guides" for the self-taught developer, here on CSS-Tricks, and maybe some stuff about how cool WordPress is nowadays. At the very least, "Intro To Algorithms" will be coming at you, soon!

How about you, reader?

Have you been on this roller coaster ride, too? Where did you end up? What advice can you offer to those of us who are still in the midst of our journey?

Tales of a Non-Unicorn: A Story About the Roller Coaster of Job Searching is a post from CSS-Tricks

Categories: Web Technologies

Monitoring unused CSS by unleashing the raw power of the DevTools Protocol

Fri, 01/05/2018 - 12:38

From Johnny's dev blog:

The challenge: Calculate the real percentage of unused CSS

Our goal is to create a script that will measure the percentage of unused CSS of this page. Notice that the user can interact with the page and navigate using the different tabs.

DevTools can be used to measure the amount of unused CSS in the page using the Coverage tab. Notice that the percentage of unused CSS after the page loads is ~55%, but after clicking on each of the tabs, more CSS rules are applied and the percentage drops down to just ~15%.

That's why I'm so skeptical of anything that attempts to measure "unused CSS." This is an incredibly simple demo (all it does is click some tabs) and the amount of unused CSS changes dramatically.

If you are looking for accurate data on how much unused CSS is in your codebase, in an automated fashion, you'll need to visit every single URL on your site and trigger every possible event on every element and continue doing that until things stop changing. Then do that for every possible state a user could be in—in every possible browser.

Here's another incredibly exotic way I've heard of it being done:

  1. Wait a random amount of time after the page loads
  2. Loop through all the selectors in the CSSOM
  3. Put a querySelector on them and see if it finds anything or not
  4. Report those findings back to a central database
  5. Run this for enough time on a random set of visitors (or all visitors) that you're certain is a solid amount of data representing everywhere on your site
  6. Take your set of selectors that never matched anything and add a tiny 1px transparent GIF background image to them
  7. Run that modified CSS for an equal amount of time
  8. Check your server logs to make sure those images were never requested. If they were, you were wrong about that selector being unused, so remove it from the list
  9. And the end of all that, you have a set of selectors in your CSS that are very likely to be unused.

Clever, but highly unlikely that anyone is using either of these methods in a consistent and useful way.

I'm a little scared for tools like Lighthouse that claim to audit your unused CSS telling you to "remove unused rules from stylesheets to reduce unnecessary bytes consumed by network activity." The chances seem dangerously high that someone runs this, finds this so-called unused CSS and deletes it only to discover it wasn't really unused.

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Monitoring unused CSS by unleashing the raw power of the DevTools Protocol is a post from CSS-Tricks

Categories: Web Technologies

`font-size` With All Viewport Units

Fri, 01/05/2018 - 10:39

We've covered fluid type a number of times. This page probably covers it in the best detail. It's a little more complicated than simply using a vw unit to set the font-size since that's far too dramatic. Ideally, the font-size is literally fluid between minimum and maximum values.

Someday there will be min-font-size and max-font-size (probably), but until then, our fluid type implementations will probably need to resort to some @media queries to lock those mins/maxes.

Or...

Around a year ago Matt Smith documented a technique I had missed. It calculates font-size using a little bit of vw, a little bit of vh, and a little bit of the smaller of the two...

:root { font-size: calc(1vw + 1vh + .5vmin); }

Of course, it depends on the font and what you are doing with it, but it seems to me this tempers the curve such that you might not really need a min and max.

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`font-size` With All Viewport Units is a post from CSS-Tricks

Categories: Web Technologies

A Round-Up of 2017 Round-Ups

Fri, 01/05/2018 - 07:03

This week marked the beginning of a new year and with it came a slew of excellent write-ups from folks in our industry reflecting on the year past. We thought it would be nice to compile them together for easy reference. If you know of any others that should be on everyone's radar, please leave it in the comments.

Now on to the round-up of round-ups!

Rachel Andrew

Having been wandering the globe talking about CSS Grid for almost five years, Grid finally shipped in browsers in 2017. This was good, as I didn’t really want to be some kind of CSS vapourware lady. I knew Grid was important the first time I read the initial spec. I had no idea how my championing of the specification would change my life, and allow me to get to work with so many interesting people.

Read More

Geri Coady

One of my biggest achievements this year was the release of my second book, Color Accessibility Workflows, published by A Book Apart. I’m hugely grateful for any opportunity to talk about color and how it can impact people in the digital world, and writing for A Book Apart has long been a dream of mine.

Read More

Monica Dinculescu

You can tell I hate writing year in reviews because this one is really, really late. I tend to hate bragging, and I definitely hate introspective and, in particular, I always think I am underperforming (and that’s fine). However, that’s usually not true, and writing a year in review forces me to see the awesome things I did, so even if I did end up underperforming, at least I can learn from that. That’s the whole point of post-mortems, right?

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Sarah Drasner

This year has been a surreal one for me. I’ve had years that were particularly tough, years that trended more cheerfully, but 2017 was unique and bizarre because I felt an immense guilt in my happiness.

I think this might have been the year I found the most personal happiness, but the giant caveat in everything was watching the world divide, watching racism, sexism and hatred rise, and seeing some real damage that incurred on people’s lives around the world.

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Brad Frost

Throughout 2017, when people asked how I was doing, I’d say “Great…for the things I can control.” 2017 was a rough year at a macro level for everybody, and I found myself coping with the state of the world in a number of different ways. But on a personal level, I had a rewarding year full of a lot of work, a lot of travel, and even some major life changes.

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Geoff Graham

It feels kind of weird to include my own round-up, but whatever.

I've typically set goals for myself at the start of each year and followed up on them somewhere towards the end of the year. Unfortunately, the last time I did that out loud was in 2014. I’ve been pretty quiet about my goals and general life updates since then and it’s certainly not for lack of things to write about. So, I’m giving this whole reflection thing the ol’ college go once again.

Read More

Jeremy Keith

Jeremy published 78 blog posts in 2017 (or 6.5 per month as he calculates it) and noted his personal favorites.

Read More

Zach Leatherman

I had an incredibly productive year of side projects, learning, and blog posts—I can attribute almost all of that rediscovered time and energy to quitting Facebook very early in the year. It’s also been amazing to see my daughter grow and learn—she turned two this year and I really love being a dad. We now have our own secret handshake and it’s my favorite thing.

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Ethan Marcotte

And finally, one of the things I’m most proud of is, well, this little website, which I launched hastily just over a year ago. And over the last entirely-too-eventful year, I’ve surprised myself with just how much it helped to be blogging again. Because while the world’s been not-so-lightly smoldering, it felt—and feels—good to put words in a place where I can write, think, and tinker, a place that isn’t Twitter, a place that’s mine.

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Eric Meyer

While this is not so much a reflection on the past year, Eric did mark the new year with a livestream redesign of his personal website—the first design update in 13 years.

My core goal was to make the site, particularly blog posts, more readable and inviting. I think I achieved that, and I hope you agree. The design should be more responsive-friendly than before, and I think all my flex and grid uses are progressively enhanced. I do still need to better optimize my use of images, something I hope to start working on this week.

Read More

Dave Rupert

My big work task this year was building a Pattern Library and it’s exciting to see that work beginning to roll out. The most gratifying aspect is seeing the ultimate Pattern Library thesis proven out: Speed. Pages load faster, CMS integrations are faster, and we can successfully turn out new production pages within a 1-day turnaround.

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David Walsh

David used the new year to think about and plot upcoming goals.

Every turn of the year is a new opportunity to start over, set goals, and renew optimism that time can heal wounds and drive us to change and achieve. For me 2018 is my most important year in a long time; 2018 needs to serve as a turning point for this blog and my career.

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Trent Walton

Dave, Reagan, and I celebrated our 10th official year as Paravel. In addition to some shorter-term projects, we undertook a large-scale pattern library and front-end update that is rolling out in phases this year. We’ve also enjoyed bringing in 6+ collaborators/teams to assist with projects when the need has arisen. I bet we do more of this in 2018—collaborating with friends has been fun.

Read More

CSS-Tricks

Think we'd leave out our own round-up? Of all the site stats Chris shared in this post, this one nicely summed up the action around here in 2017:

We were on a publishing roll though! We published 595 posts, blowing away last year with only 442, the previous record. We also published 50 pages (i.e. snippets/videos/almanac entries) beating 43 last year. Certainly, we're in favor of quality over quantity, but I think this is a healthy publishing pace when our goal is to be read, in a sense, like a magazine.

Read More

A Round-Up of 2017 Round-Ups is a post from CSS-Tricks

Categories: Web Technologies

Front-End Performance Checklist

Thu, 01/04/2018 - 12:01

Vitaly Friedman swings wide with a massive list of performance considerations. It's a well-considered mix of old tactics (cutting the mustard, progressive enhancement, etc.) and newer considerations (tree shaking, prefetching, etc.). I like the inclusion of a quick wins section since so much can be done for little effort; it's important to do those things before getting buried in more difficult performance tasks.

Speaking of considering performance, Philip Walton recently dug into what interactive actually means, in a world where we throw around acronyms like TTI:

But what exactly does the term “interactivity” mean?

I think most people reading this article probably know what the word “interactivity” means in general. The problem is, in recent years the word has been given a technical meaning (e.g. in the metric “Time to Interactive” or TTI), and unfortunately the specifics of that meaning are rarely explained.

One reason is that the page depends on JavaScript and that JavaScript hasn't downloaded, parsed, and run yet. That reason is well-trod, but there is another one: the "main thread" might be busy doing other stuff. That is a particularly insidious enemy of performance, so definitely read Philip's article to understand more about that.

Also, if you're into front-end checklists, check out David Dias' Front-End Checklist.

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Front-End Performance Checklist is a post from CSS-Tricks

Categories: Web Technologies

26 Fabulous Scripts Fonts

Thu, 01/04/2018 - 08:24

(This is a sponsored post.)

Just $9.

They are nicely constructed as well, with stylistic alternates, ligatures, punctuation, extra characters, and multilingual support.

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26 Fabulous Scripts Fonts is a post from CSS-Tricks

Categories: Web Technologies

Fun Times With Sizing Grid Elements

Thu, 01/04/2018 - 08:24

Chris showed us a little while back that CSS grid areas and their elements are not necessarily the same size. It's an interesting point because one might assume that putting things into a grid area would make those things occupy the entire space, but grid areas actually reserve the space defined by the grid and set the element's justify-content and align-items properties to a stretch value by default.

So... yes, they are the same size, but not necessarily.

Chris ended his post by asking "who cares?" while indicating no one in particular. The point was much more geared toward calling this out as a starting point for folks who need to align content in the grid.

I'm not sure I have a better answer, but it made me think it would be fun if we could leverage those auto-assigned stretch values to adapt a user interface in interesting ways.

I'm not saying any of these are great use cases. In fact, they may be downright silly. That said, maybe they can be the starting point for other ideas.

Stretching Form Fields

One idea is to add some interaction to form fields. If our <form> is the grid container then we can set text inputs where they start at their default width using the start value and then expanding them to the full width of the container by switching to the stretch value on a :focus state:

.grid__form { display: grid; } .grid__input { justify-self: start; } .grid__input:focus { justify-self: stretch; }

See the Pen CSS Grid: Grid Child Stretch on Focus by Geoff Graham (@geoffgraham) on CodePen.

Then again, we can already do something similar with Flexbox but with the benefit of the flex being an animated property:

See the Pen Flexbox: Child Stretch on Focus by Geoff Graham (@geoffgraham) on CodePen.

I'm honestly not sure where expanding form fields on focus would make for great UX but it's certainly fun to play with.

Curtain Opening Effect Re-Visited

We posted a good ol' fashioned CSS trick last year that uses the checkbox hack to create the effect of a curtain opening to reveal content behind it.

See the Pen OXJMmY by Geoff Graham (@geoffgraham) on CodePen.

That used widths and positioning to move things around on click, but we could have done something similar with Grid. Again, this is less robust because it lacks animation and the does not allow the curtain to fully open, but it does show how we can leverage the stretch, start and end values of a grid element and its sizing to achieve some interesting ideas.

See the Pen CSS Grid Curtain Reveal by Geoff Graham (@geoffgraham) on CodePen.

What Else?

The fact that grid elements are not always the size of the grid area is a nice tip to keep in our back pockets as we develop layouts. I'd bet we can come up with more ideas to take that concept to another level and have fun with it as a group. Share 'em if you have 'em!

Fun Times With Sizing Grid Elements is a post from CSS-Tricks

Categories: Web Technologies

CodePen’s Most Hearted of 2017

Wed, 01/03/2018 - 16:26

The most fun year-end list there is, if you ask me.

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CodePen’s Most Hearted of 2017 is a post from CSS-Tricks

Categories: Web Technologies

Array Explorer and Object Explorer

Wed, 01/03/2018 - 11:38

Sarah made these incredibly handy interactive code reference... thingers.

The idea is perfect. I'm in this position regularly. I know what I have (i.e. an array or an object). I know what I want to do with it (i.e. get an array of all the keys in my object). But I forget the actual method name. These thingers guide you to the right method by letting you tell it what you got and what you wanna do.

Array Explorer

See the Pen Array Explorer by Sarah Drasner (@sdras) on CodePen.

Object Explorer

See the Pen Object Explorer by Sarah Drasner (@sdras) on CodePen.

Array Explorer and Object Explorer is a post from CSS-Tricks

Categories: Web Technologies

Improving the Accessibility of 24 ways

Wed, 01/03/2018 - 06:41

I’ve been thinking recently about the nature of my work and which aspects of it I enjoy the most. In a role that will often straddle the realms of design and development, whether editing copy, evaluating the design of an interface or refactoring code, I've come to realize that my interests lie in the act of review and refinement.

My work on 24 ways is a case in point. Since Drew McLellan asked me to redesign the site in 2013, I’ve stayed on as part of the team, helping to review, edit and format articles. But I’ve also been able to fulfil the desire I expressed upon launching the redesign:

I'm a big believer in iteration and not treating a website as ever being finished. I hope what’s been released this year can act as a foundation, and that the design will evolve in the years to come.

In the intervening years, as tools have improved and best practices have matured, I've tweaked the design and refactored the code, and developed a component library in the process.

The 24 ways home page A Focus on Accessibility

This year I've been listening to people like Laura Kalbag talk about accessibility in terms of universal design, and followed blogs like Heydon Pickering’s Inclusive Components, which covers how to design and implement common interaction patterns with an inclusive mindset. All of a sudden, the thorny subject of accessibility has felt more approachable and less dogmatic.

With all this knowledge digested, I was keen to see how 24 ways would fare when put under the microscope. In this article, I will cover five areas where I was able to make improvements:

  • Page structure
  • Labelling of elements
  • Keyboard navigation
  • Aural experience
  • General usability

Before I start, a note of thanks. After making an initial set of changes, I asked my friend and accessibility expert Francis Storr to review my work. He uncovered a number of additional issues, partly the result of his experience in this area, but also from having tested the site with a range of different assistive tools.

Rethinking Page Structure

The original design had adopted a mobile-first approach. The navigation was deprioritized and placed towards the bottom of the page. To ensure that it could be accessed from the top of the page in non-JavaScript scenarios, I added a skip to navigation link. If JavaScript was available, this link was co-opted to reveal a navigation drawer, which would slide in from the top or right, depending on the width of the viewport. This resulted in the following page structure:

<header class="c-banner">…</header> <a class="c-menu" href="#menu">Jump to menu</a> <main class="c-main">…</main> <nav class="c-navigation" id="menu"> <div class="c-traverse-nav">…</div> <div class="c-navigation__drawer"/>…</div> </nav> <footer class="c-contentinfo">…</footer>

In retrospect, this was problematic in a number of ways:

  • The menu button (.c-menu) was not adjacent to the element it controlled (c-navigation-drawer). Moving focus around the page like this can be confusing, especially if it’s not managed properly.
  • All navigation on the site was grouped together, even though each set of links served a different purpose.
  • The drawer behaviour relied on having a link behave like a button. However, the first rule of ARIA states:

    If you can use a native HTML element or attribute with the semantics and behavior you require already built in, instead of re-purposing an element and adding an ARIA role, state or property to make it accessible, then do so

    Last year, I updated the JavaScript so that this link would be replaced by a button, yet this complexity was a hint that my original solution was sub-optimal.

Here's the structure I arrived at today:

<header class="c-banner"> … <a class="c-banner__skip" href="#main">Skip to content</a> </header> <div class="c-menu"> <button class="c-menu__button">…</button> <div class="c-menu__drawer">…</div> </div> <main class="c-main" id="main">…</main> <nav class="c-traverse-nav">…</nav> <footer class="c-contentinfo">…</footer>

Moving the navigation towards the top of the page meant the button and drawer were now adjacent to each other. The menu button is no longer two-faced; it is and always will be a button.

A downside to this approach is that the navigation can be heard every time you visit a new page. Again, we can use a skip link, but this time one that points to the content block (#main). Rather than hide this focusable element from certain users, it becomes visible on focus.

This structure may be less ideologically pure, but it’s far more pragmatic. This became a recurring theme. Indeed, having given up any hope of the HTML5 outline algorithm ever being supported by browsers, I stopped using h1 for section headings and followed the recommendation that heading ranks should be used to convey document structure instead.

Improving Keyboard Navigation

As the most interactive component on the site, the menu was the unsurprising focus of my review. The design dictates that the navigation drawer should behave like a dialog, an interface pattern that brings with it a number of assumptions. These are described in detail in eBay's MIND pattern, but essentially a dialog draws focus away from other elements on the page and is modal; only elements within it can be operated while it is open.

I had previously cobbled together various bits of JavaScript to handle focusing (cobbling which at various points produced the odd bug such as failing to draw focus to the first element in the dialog), but had neglected to indicate the menu’s role. Having fixed these issues (adding role='dialog' when the menu is open), Francis pointed out that screen readers could still access links outside the dialog when it was open. In macOS VoiceOver for example, pressing CTRL + OPT + CMD + L to navigate links within the menu, would in fact announce every link on the page.

The solution was to mark everything outside the dialog as "inert". Rob Dodson describes this in more detail in his video Accessible Modal Dialogs. Implementing this can be a little bit fiddly, but a proposal to introduce an inert attribute would make this easier to manage. In the meantime, the proposal provides a polyfill so you can use this feature today.

I’ve found that by thinking about an interface in terms of common interaction patterns, and how they should operate in order to be widely understood, has helped me avoid complexity, and write more robust code. In fact, stepping into the world of accessibility has uncovered a wealth of useful resources, with well-written JavaScript examples a plenty. Given my difficult relationship with the web’s programming language, these have proven invaluable.

Properly Labelling Elements

A good amount of accessibility comes down to labelling things that rely on visual appearance alone to convey meaning. Much like the alt attribute allows us to describe images, aria-label (and its relations) extend this ability to other elements.

Navigation component that allows users to move between articles in a series.

Here is the markup I was using in the navigation element that allows users to traverse previous and next articles within a series:

<div class="c-traverse-nav"> <a rel="prev" href="/2016/we-need-to-talk-about-technical-debt/" data-sequence-title="We Need to Talk About Technical Debt"> <svg width="20" height="20" viewBox="0 0 200 200" role="img"> <path d="M50 100l85 85 7-7-78-78 78-78-7-7"/> </svg> <span class="u-hidden">Previous article</span> </a> <a rel="next" href="/2016/what-the-heck-is-inclusive-design/" data-sequence-title="What the Heck Is Inclusive Design?"> <span class="u-hidden">Next article</span> <svg width="20" height="20" viewBox="0 0 200 200" role="img"> <path d="M150 100l-85 85-7-7 78-78-78-78 7-7"/> </svg> </a> </div>

While I had provided text content for these links, this component still had a number of issues:

  • No indication was given as to the role these links play and their relationship to each other.
  • Using role='img' on the SVG icons, but not providing any accessible names, was akin to including images without alt attributes.
  • Useful information, in this case the title of the previous and next article, was hidden within a data- attribute. This attribute was used in the stylesheet to add content that is shown in animated ‘flaps’ that appear on hover:
.c-traverse-nav a[rel=prev]:hover::after { content: 'Previous: \A' attr(data-sequence-title); } .c-traverse-nav a[rel=next]:hover::after { content: 'Next: \A' attr(data-sequence-title); }

Meaningful content in CSS? That should have been a red flag. I revised this component as follows:

<nav class="c-traverse-nav" aria-label="Articles"> <a rel="prev" href="/2016/what-the-heck-is-inclusive-design/" aria-label="Previous: We Need to Talk About Technical Debt"> <svg width="20" height="20" viewBox="0 0 200 200" focusable="false" aria-hidden="true"> <path d="M50 100l85 85 7-7-78-78 78-78-7-7"/> </svg> </a> <a rel="next" href="/2016/what-the-heck-is-inclusive-design/" aria-label="Next: What the Heck Is Inclusive Design?"> <svg width="20" height="20" viewBox="0 0 200 200" focusable="false" aria-hidden="true"> <path d="M150 100l-85 85-7-7 78-78-78-78 7-7"/> </svg> </a> </nav>

The first thing I did was give this set of links a label. I originally choose Articles navigation. However, in testing VoiceOver would announce: navigation, Articles navigation. As the nav element already describes the role, we need only provide additional information about the type of navigation this is.

Secondly, on the advice of Francis, I added focusable='false' to all inline SVG markup. This is due to a bug in IE11 where SVGs are keyboard focusable by default.

Regarding the labelling of the SVG icons, I had two choices. I could either move the hidden text content to these icons using aria-label, or remove them from the accessibility tree entirely using aria-hidden. In considering the second option, I realised I could merge the hidden text with that in the data- attribute, and use this combined information within an aria-label attribute. All of a sudden, my CSS became much simpler:

.c-traverse-nav a:hover::after { content: attr(aria-label); }

Accessible markup is useful markup.

Considering the Aural Experience

Navigating the site using a screen reader lead to me making a few other small changes as well. For example, a few links on the site include a right-pointing arrow, a visual flourish created using the following CSS:

.c-continue::after { content: ' \203A'; /* Single Right-Pointing Angle Quotation Mark */ }

However, screen-readers typically announce generated content. When these links were read out, you’d hear nonsense like this:

link, more articles by drew single right-pointing angle quotation mark.

Adding speak: none had no effect (CSS aural properties have little support). However, I could create a similar arrow using CSS borders:

.c-continue::after { display: inline-block; vertical-align: middle; height: 0.375em; width: 0.375em; border: 0.1875em solid; border-color: currentColor currentColor transparent transparent; transform: rotate(45deg); content: ''; } Continue links before and after improvements. While they look similar, the revised design sounds much better.

I also made improvements to the styling of author names in article summaries. Originally, these were distinguished from the rest of the excerpt by styling them as uppercase text. Francis pointed out that some screen readers will spell out uppercase letters (regardless of whether they appear in the HTML or have been altered by CSS) if they don’t spell a known word. For example VoiceOver and NVDA have trouble with Chris Coyier's surname, so his name would be read aloud as Chris C-O-Y-I-E-R. The simple fix was to distinguish names using emboldened text instead.

If I'm honest, I’ve been somewhat arrogant in the past, thinking that by using semantic markup and progressive enhancement, I needn’t worry too much about accessibility. While using the right elements, and considering an interface not only in visual terms is important, this is the absolute bare minimum. An understanding of different assistive technologies, and willingness to test with them, is just as important.

Reviewing General Usability

Thinking about accessibility led to me improve overall usability, too.

For this years set of articles, we no longer link to author's websites from article excerpts. This historical holdover was poorly resolved previously; if you happened to click on the author’s name you would be taken to their website, not the article as you would expect. We also included comment counts that were linked to the comment section on the article page (which itself linked to a separate comments page). Madness!

Now, each article has one link; to the article. A home page that once involved tabbing through 24×3 links, is now less noisy and much easier to navigate for everyone.

Other refinements included ensuring the site is responsive in terms of height, as well as width, ensuring the navigation menu can be dismissed when you click outside of it, and a review of overall performance. These might not be considered accessibility improvements, but I’m not so sure. To suggest this would be to think accessibility is an entirely separate concern. In fact, making changes that benefit one set of users will typically benefit all.

Creating something new will always attract attention and admiration, but there’s an under-celebrated nobility in improving what already exists. While not all changes may be visual, they can have just as much impact. I know that, had we decided to redesign the site this year, many of these improvements would not have been made. Hopefully, this overview will encourage you to look at your own projects and think about similar changes you might make.

Having a growing awareness of the issues, and expanding your knowledge of the tools available is an essential requirement of working on the web. However, don’t keep that knowledge saved up for the future; if you can, go back and fix your older projects too.

Improving the Accessibility of 24 ways is a post from CSS-Tricks

Categories: Web Technologies

You are what you document

Tue, 01/02/2018 - 13:42

There are so many little gems in this piece by Yevgeniy Brikman all about documentation. He digs into a lot more than simply documenting code though and focuses on how we can document every phase of our work, from design to process and beyond.

Here’s my favorite lines that made me sit back and shout “Wahoo!”:

When a developer uses your code, they are really learning a new language, so choose the words in it wisely.

...programs must be written for people to read, and only incidentally for machines to execute.

I like how Yevgeniy suggests that there are kinda two different mindsets that we have to get into when writing code: one for making the dang thing work in the first place, and another for explaining how and why we did a specific way. There’s context-switching that takes place between those different stages of work.

Anyway, when seen in this light, documentation could be much more than a nice-to-have. Instead, it might just be 50% of the work.

Direct Link to ArticlePermalink

You are what you document is a post from CSS-Tricks

Categories: Web Technologies

Additive Animation with the Web Animations API

Tue, 01/02/2018 - 07:37

These features have not landed in any stable browsers at the time of writing. However, everything discussed is already in Firefox Nightly by default and key parts are in Chrome Canary (with the Experimental Web Platform Features flag enabled), so I recommend using one of those browsers (when reading this article) to see as many of the features in action as possible.

Regardless your preferred method of animation on the web, there will be times that you need to animate the same property in separate animations. Maybe you have a hover effect that scales an image and a click event that triggers a translate — both affecting the transform. By default, those animations do not know anything about the other, and only one will visually be applied (since they are affecting the same CSS property and the other value will be overridden).

element.animate({ transform: ['translateY(0)', 'translateY(10px)'] }, 1000); /* This will completely override the previous animation */ element.animate({ transform: ['scale(1)', 'scale(1.15)'] }, 1500);

The second animation in this Web Animations API example is the only one that would be visually rendered in this example as both animations play at the same time and it was the last one defined.

Sometimes we even have grander ideas where we want a foundational animation and then based on some user interaction change in state we smoothly modify the animation a bit midway without affecting its existing duration, keyframes, or easing. CSS Animations and the current Web Animations API in stable browsers today cannot do this out of the box.

A New Option

The Web Animations specification introduces the composite property (and the related iterationComposite). The default composite is 'replace' and has the behavior we have had for years now where an actively animating property's value simply replaces any previously set value — either from a rule set or another animation.

The 'add' value is where things change from the previous norms.

element.animate({ transform: ['scale(1)', 'scale(1.5)'] }, { duration: 1000, fill: 'both' }); element.animate({ transform: ['rotate(0deg)', 'rotate(180deg)'] }, { duration: 1500, fill: 'both', composite: 'add' });

Now both animations will be seen as the browser on the fly figures out the appropriate transformation at a given point in the element's timeline accounting for both transformations. In our examples, the easing is 'linear' by default and the animations start at the same time, so we can break out what the effective transform is at any given point. Such as:

  • 0ms: scale(1) rotate(0deg)
  • 500ms: scale(1.25) rotate(60deg) (halfway through first animation, 1/3 through second)
  • 1000ms: scale(1.5) rotate(120deg) (end of first, 2/3 through second)
  • 1500ms: scale(1.5) rotate(180deg) (end of second)

See the Pen Animation Composite by Dan Wilson (@danwilson) on CodePen.

So Let's Get Creative

An individual animation does not just consist of a start state and end state — it can have its own easing, iteration count, duration, and more keyframes in the middle. While an element is mid animation you can throw an additional transformation on it with its own timing options.

See the Pen Add more transform animations by Dan Wilson (@danwilson) on CodePen.

This example lets you apply multiple animations on the same element, all affecting the transform property. To keep from going all out in this example, we limit each animation to a single transformation function at a time (such as only a scale), starting at a default value (such as scale(1) or translateX(0)), and ending at a reasonable random value on that same transformation function, repeated infinitely. The next animation will affect another single function with its own randomized duration and easing.

element.animate(getTransform(), //e.g. { transform: ['rotate(0deg), 'rotate(45deg)'] } { duration: getDuration(), //between 1000 and 6000ms iterations: Infinity, composite: 'add', easing: getEasing() //one of two options });

When each animation starts, the browser will effectively find where it is in its previously applied animations and start a new rotation animation with the specified timing options. Even if there is already a rotation going in the opposite direction, the browser will do the math to figure out how much a rotation needs to happen.
Since each animation has its own timing options, you are unlikely to see the exact same motion repeated in this example once you have added a few. This gives the animation a fresh feel as you watch it.

Since each animation in our example starts at the default value (0 for translations and 1 for scaling) we get a smooth start. If we instead had keyframes such as { transform: ['scale(.5)', 'scale(.8)'] } we would get a jump because the didn't have this scale before and all of a sudden starts its animation at half scale.

How are values added?

Transformation values follow the syntax of in the spec, and if you add a transformation you are appending to a list.

For transform animations A, B, and C the resulting computed transform value will be [current value in A] [current value in B] [current value in C]. For example, assume the following three animations:

element.animate({ transform: ['translateX(0)', 'translateX(10px)'] }, 1000); element.animate({ transform: ['translateY(0)', 'translateY(-20px)'] }, { duration:1000, composite: 'add' }); element.animate({ transform: ['translateX(0)', 'translateX(300px)'] }, { duration:1000, composite: 'add' });

Each animation runs for 1 second with a linear easing, so halfway through the animations the resulting transform would have the value translateX(5px) translateY(-10px) translateX(150px). Easings, durations, delays, and more will all affect the value as you go along.

Transforms are not the only thing we can animate, however. Filters (hue-rotate(), blur(), etc) follow a similar pattern where the items are appended to a filter list.

Some properties use a number as a value, such as opacity. Here the numbers will add up to a single sum.

element.animate({ opacity: [0, .1] }, 1000); element.animate({ opacity: [0, .2] }, { duration:1000, composite: 'add' }); element.animate({ opacity: [0, .4] }, { duration:1000, composite: 'add' });

Since each animation again is 1s in duration with a linear easing, we can calculate the resulting value at any point in that animation.

  • 0ms: opacity: 0 (0 + 0 + 0)
  • 500ms: opacity: .35 (.05 + .1 + .2)
  • 1000ms: opacity: .7 (.1 + .2 + .4)

As such, you won't be seeing much if you have several animations that include the value 1 as a keyframe. That is a max value for its visual state, so adding up to values beyond that will look the same as if it were just a 1.

See the Pen Add more opacity animations by Dan Wilson (@danwilson) on CodePen.

Similar to opacity and other properties that accept number values, properties that accept lengths, percentages, or colors will also sum to a single result value. With colors, you must remember they also have a max value, too (whether a max of 255 in rgb() or 100% for saturation/lightness in hsl()), so your result could max out to a white. With lengths, you can switch between units (such as px to vmin) as though it is inside a calc().

For more details, the specification outlines the different types of animation and how the result is calculated.

Working with Fill Modes

When you are not doing an infinite animation (whether you are using a composite or not) by default the animation will not keep its end state as the animation ends. The fill property allows us to change that behavior. If you want to have a smooth transition when you add a finite animation, you likely will want a fill mode of either forwards or both to make sure the end state remains.

See the Pen Spiral: Composite Add + Fill Forwards by Dan Wilson (@danwilson) on CodePen.

This example has an animation with a spiral path by specifying a rotation and a translation. There are two buttons that add new one second animations with an additional small translation. Since they specify fill: 'forwards' each additional translation effectively remains part of the transform list. The expanding (or shrinking) spiral adapts smoothly with each translation adjustment because it is an additive animation from translateX(0) to a new amount and remains at that new amount.

Accumulating animations

The new composite option has a third value — 'accumulate'. It is conceptually in line with 'add' except certain types of animations will behave differently. Keeping with our transform, let's start with a new example using 'add' and then discuss how 'accumulate' is different.

element.animate({ transform: ['translateX(0)', 'translateX(20px)'] }, { duration: 1000, composite: 'add' }); element.animate({ transform: ['translateX(0)', 'translateX(30px)'] }, { duration: 1000, composite: 'add' }); element.animate({ transform: ['scale(1)', 'scale(.5)'] }, { duration: 1000, composite: 'add' });

At the 1 second mark (the end of the animations), the effective value will be:

transform: translateX(20px) translateX(30px) scale(.5)

Which will visually push an element to the right 50px and then scale it down to half width and half height.

If each animation had been using 'accumulate' instead, then the result would be:

transform: translateX(50px) scale(.5)

Which will visually push an element to the right 50px and then scale it down to half width and half height.

No need for a double take, the visual results are in fact the exact same — so how is 'accumulate' any different?

Technically when accumulating a transform animation we are no longer always appending to a list. If a transformation function already exists (such as the translateX() in our example) we will not append the value when we start our second animation. Instead, the inner values (i.e. the length values) will be added and placed in the existing function.

If our visual results are the same, why does the option to accumulate inner values exist?

In the case of transform, order of the list of functions matters. The transformation translateX(20px) translateX(30px) scale(.5) is different than translateX(20px) scale(.5) translateX(30px) because each function affects the coordinate system of the functions that follow it. When you do a scale(.5) in the middle, the latter functions will also happen at the half scale. Therefore with this example the translateX(30px) will visually render as a 15px translation to the right.

See the Pen Visual Reference: Transform Coordinate Systems by Dan Wilson (@danwilson) on CodePen.

Therefore, with accumulation we can have an order that is different then when we always append the values to the list.

Accumulating for Each Iteration

I mentioned before that there is also a new related iterationComposite property. It provides the ability to do some of the behaviors we have already discussed except on a single animation from one iteration to the next.

Unlike composite, this property only has two valid values: 'replace' (the default behavior you already know and love) and 'accumulate'. With 'accumulate' values follow the already discussed accumulation process for lists (as with transform) or are added together for number based properties like opacity.

As a starting example, the visual result for the following two animations would be identical:

intervals.animate([{ transform: `rotate(0deg) translateX(0vmin)`, opacity: 0 }, { transform: `rotate(50deg) translateX(2vmin)`, opacity: .5 }], { duration: 2000, iterations: 2, fill: 'forwards', iterationComposite: 'accumulate' }); intervals2.animate([{ transform: `rotate(0deg) translateX(0vmin)`, opacity: 0 },{ transform: `rotate(100deg) translateX(4vmin)`, opacity: 1 }], { duration: 4000, iterations: 1, fill: 'forwards', iterationComposite: 'replace' //default value });

The first animation is only bumping up its opacity by .5, rotating 50 degrees, and moving 2vmin for 2000 milliseconds. It has our new iterationComposite value and is set to run for 2 iterations. Therefore, when the animation ends, it will have run for 2 * 2000ms and reached an opacity of 1 (2 * .5), rotated 100 degrees (2 * 50deg) and translated 4vmin (2 * 2vmin).

See the Pen Spiral with WAAPI iterationComposite by Dan Wilson (@danwilson) on CodePen.

Great! We just used a new property that is supported in only Firefox Nightly to recreate what we can already do with the Web Animations API (or CSS)!
The more interesting aspects of iterationComposite come into play when you combine it with other items in the Web Animations spec that are coming soon (and also already in Firefox Nightly).

Setting New Effect Options

The Web Animations API as it stands in stable browsers today is largely on par with CSS Animations with some added niceties like a playbackRate option and the ability to jump/seek to different points. However, the Animation object is gaining the ability to update the effect and timing options on already running animations.

See the Pen WAAPI iterationComposite & composite by Dan Wilson (@danwilson) on CodePen.

Here we have an element with two animations affecting the transform property and relying on composite: 'add' — one that makes the element move across the screen horizontally and one moving it vertically in a staggered manner. The end state is a little higher on the screen than the start state of this second animation, and with iterationComposite: 'accumulate' it keeps getting higher and higher. After eight iterations the animation finishes and reverses itself for another eight iterations back down to the bottom of the screen where the process begins again.

We can change how far up the screen the animation goes by changing the number of iterations on the fly. These animations are playing indefinitely, but you can change the dropdown to a different iteration count in the middle of the animation. If you are, for example, going from seven iterations to nine and you are seeing the sixth iteration currently, your animation keeps running as though nothing has changed. However, you will see that instead of starting a reverse after that next (seventh) iteration, it will continue for two more. You can also swap in new keyframes, and the animation timing will remain unchanged.

animation.effect.timing.iterations = 4; animation.effect.setKeyframes([ { transform: 'scale(1)' }, { transform: 'scale(1.2)' } ]);

Modifying animations midway may not be something you will use every day, but since it is something new at the browser level we will be learning of its possibilities as the functionality becomes more widely available. Changing iteration counts could be handy for a game when a user get a bonus round and gameplay continues longer than originally intended. Different keyframes can make sense when a user goes from some error state to a success state.

Where do we go from here?

The new composite options and the ability to change timing options and keyframes open new doors for reactive and choreographed animations. There is also an ongoing discussion in the CSS Working Group about adding this functionality to CSS, even beyond the context of animations — affecting the cascade in a new way. We have time before any of this will land in a stable major browser, but it is exciting to see new options coming and even more exciting to be able to experiment with them today.

Additive Animation with the Web Animations API is a post from CSS-Tricks

Categories: Web Technologies

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