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Flocon de toile | Freelance Drupal: A cache example in action with Drupal 8

Wed, 09/26/2018 - 05:24

As we say in terms of computer programming, only two things are extremely complex: naming variables and invalidating the cache. Drupal 8 has an automatic caching system activated by default that is truly revolutionary, which makes it possible to offer a cache for anonymous visitors and especially for authenticated users without any configuration. This cache system is based on three basic concepts:

Categories: Drupal CMS

Droptica: Drupal 8-based online store... or Drupal Commerce.

Wed, 09/26/2018 - 05:22
It’s been two years since the première of Drupal 8. We already got used to the differences between versions 7 and 8, and a lot of websites were created based on D8. Many Drupal 7-based websites are applications that use Drupal Commerce – an e-commerce module for Drupal. Many of the applications were set-up with the Commerce Kickstart distribution, which was based on this add-on. What’s the way to do it with D8? For a long time, only the alpha version was available, then a beta version was released. On the 20th of September 2017, we saw the release of version 2.0. As of today, the current version is 2.3. We'll see what’s new in DC and how it works with D8. For testing purposes, we are going to use DC 2.3 and Drupal 8.4.3.
Categories: Drupal CMS

Sooper Drupal Themes: 6 Amazing Websites About Learning Drupal You Should Visit

Wed, 09/26/2018 - 02:47

Are you interested in building a fully functional Drupal website but don’t know where to start? Or experience time-consuming difficulties in the process of achieving your goals with Drupal? There is no better way to learn and further develop your skills than to follow along with the finest video tutorials provided by experienced members of the Drupal community.

Sooperthemes has put together a list with some of the most useful websites that provide high quality and up-to-date Drupal tutorials.


1. BuildAModule (Free and Premium Tutorials)

BuildAModule has been dedicated to sharing Drupal tutorials to the community for more than four years now. With a rich library of an astonishing 2240 videos, BuildAModule provides an easy way of learning that is suitable for everyone interested in building a Drupal website. People who just started with Drupal and those who already have experience in working with it can find material which best suit their goals and needs. The range of topics covered in BuildAModule tutorials include: 


  • Drupal 8 Site Building, a series of 265 videos aimed to teach the basics of Drupal to people who are complete beginners in the industry, or those who are already familiar with some aspects of Drupal but want to further develop a strong foundation before starting to work on more advanced projects.
  • Setting up a Web Environment with Drupal, a short list of nine videos which will assist and guide you on how to set up a Drupal Web Environment on all platforms (Mac, Windows, Linux).
  • Upgrading to Drupal 8, 87 videos to help you understand the difference between Drupal 7 and Drupal 8, get you ready to migrate your Drupal 7 website to the newest version or help you start a new Drupal 8 project.
  • Front End Development, providing 574 tutorials related to HTML, CSS and JavaScript for people interested in learning the most frequently used tools and techniques related to these technologies.

BuildAModule videos are used by major educational institutes, web development shops and training companies. They are also neatly organized so every step of the process is clearly defined and easy to follow.


2. OSTraining (Free and Premium Tutorials)

Over the past years OSTraining has made a name for themselves by providing a wide range of  tutorials on various open source CMS software projects including Drupal 8. Currently there are 15 Drupal 8 classes available, divided into 4 categories:

  1. Drupal 8 Beginner (level: Beginner)
  2. Drupal 8 Site Management (level: Beginner & Intermediate)
  3. Drupal 8 Design (level: Intermediate & Advanced)
  4. Drupal 8 Development  (level: Advanced)

Depending on your skill level and current knowledge of Drupal 8, you can pick the classes that best fit your objective.

In addition to the premium tutorials on their website, OSTraining has also produced a great YouTube Playlist which consists of 63 Beginner Tutorials that will guide you through the essential Drupal concepts and provide basic knowledge needed in order to start working on your own project.


3. Drupalize (Free and Premium Tutorials)

If you are at least a little bit familiar with Drupal, then you most likely heard about Drupalize.

Drupalize is one of the most active players when it comes to updating their tutorials in order to keep the content up-to-date with the new features that come to Drupal 8. The material provided by them starts all the way from the Basics and Site Building, and moves on to covering more advanced topics such as Management and Strategy.

With the largest collection of Drupal premium learning videos, Drupalize has thousands of tutorials you can choose from. If you are interested in: Learning to Build Drupal Websites, Working with Drupal Themes, Becoming a Drupal Developer, Learning Drupal 8 or in an Introduction to the Drupal CMS - then Drupalized is the right choice for you!

Not sure whether or not it’s worth the investment? Check out their YouTube Playlists made in association with Lullabot, which cover topics such as: Drupal 8 User Guide, Configuration System, or How to Install Drupal for Local Development and see if the content provided by them meets your expectations.
In order to recognize contributors' hard work, Drupalize.me offers a Free Membership to the drupal.org Project Maintainers and those listed in the Drupal 8 MAINTAINERS.txt file.


4. Webwash

Whether you are a beginner or a more advanced user of Drupal, you are going to find interesting, useful and up-to-date content on Webwash.
In addition to the free and premium content offered on their website, Webwash has put together an impressive gallery of high quality tutorials available on their YouTube Channel. While you will find topics like New Media Management Functionality in Drupal 8.6, you will also stumble upon some interesting Live Streams. Also, if you encounter any difficulties or some points are not clear, the creator behind the camera Ivan Zugec is also active in the comments section and more than happy to answer the questions you have.

Last but not least, Webwash also provides premium consultancy for Drupal users who need help in building a website. Before commiting to paying the consultancy fee, you can apply for a 15 minute Free consultation and see whether or not this is the right fit for you.


5. Lynda

Lynda.com has been sharing tutorials for Students, Project Managers, IT and Design Professionals for over 20 years now. Currently a part of LinkedIn, they serve more than 10k organizations worldwide and provide tutorials for anyone working in Business, Design, Marketing, Developer and many other industries.

Lynda has a long list of Drupal related tutorials, touching on topics such as: Drupal 8 Essential Training, Drupal Responsive Design, Create Your First Online Store with Drupal Commerce or Drupal 8 Configuration Management. These tutorials have assisted tens of thousands of people in learning Drupal and helped them achieve their personal and professional goals.


People who want to use Lynda for the first time can apply for a Free Month membership which gives access to all the tutorials available in the library, but most importantly the Drupal 8 ones!


6. Drupal Up

Even though Drupal Up currently has only 351 subscribers on their YouTube Channel, the type of tutorials they provide is impressive and definitely worth taking a look at.

With a new video up and ready every Monday, Drupal Up covers topics like Module Development, Theming, Site Building and General Tips for an easier and better development. You don’t have to be an expert in Drupal in order to follow along with his tutorials, but they are definitely not just for Beginners too! No matter what your level of Drupal knowledge is, you are most likely going to find interesting videos to learn something new from.


Drupal Up also has a gallery of three premium courses on Drupal Module Development, Introduction to Drupal 8 Theming and Introduction to Drupal 8 Views. These courses serve hundreds of happy students whom.


While every single one of these websites brings unique value to the Drupal community and some incredible learning material, we’re curious to hear your opinion on them and which ones have you found to be the most intriguing?

Categories: Drupal CMS

CTI Digital: CTI will see you at NWDUG Unconference

Wed, 09/26/2018 - 02:01

The Drupal Unconference is coming up in November and we can’t wait! Following the huge success of last year's event, we are once again proud to be Silver Sponsors of this alternative annual conference.

Categories: Drupal CMS

Kalamuna Blog: BADCamp 2018: Give Your Elected Representative a Piece of Your Mind. Plus, Free Drupal Sessions!

Tue, 09/25/2018 - 16:52
BADCamp 2018: Give Your Elected Representative a Piece of Your Mind. Plus, Free Drupal Sessions! The Kalamuna Team Tue, 09/25/2018 - 16:52

This October, come to our Bay Area Drupal Camp (BADCamp) booth to give your elected representative a piece of your mind. We won’t be holding members of congress captive at the Kalamuna booth (or will we?) but we’ll have plenty of other excitements there to keep you curious. And of course, BADCamp is a celebration of open-source software, so we’ll be giving plenty of Drupal talks.

Categories Conferences Drupal Git Nonprofits Author The Kalamuna Team
Categories: Drupal CMS

Drupal Association blog: Drupal Business Survey 2018

Tue, 09/25/2018 - 12:35

This blog has been re-posted and edited with permission from OneShoe's blog. The following are results from the 2018 Drupal Business Survey conducted by One Shoe and Exove, in partnership with the Drupal Association.

Drupal Business Survey 2018: hot topics are recruitment, changing Drupal playing field, and shift to Drupal 8

The last couple of months Exove and One Shoe worked closely with the Drupal Association on the global Drupal business survey to assess current trends, adoption of emerging technologies and shifting perspectives on the Drupal landscape. The survey was open during July and August. In these two months 136 Drupal agency leaders and decision makers worldwide were surveyed to learn where the Drupal industry is heading and how the Drupal community can chart their course for Drupal’s success in the years to come.

According to the survey, the Drupal client landscape has been changing with the continuing adoption of Drupal 8. For many of the respondents, the sales pipeline and average deal size has grown – while a number of companies struggle with client acquisition and moving to Drupal 8. The surveyed companies are using various strategies to adapt to the changed situation. As in the previous surveys, the Drupal talent availability is seen as one of the major challenges.

Survey participants were Drupal business leaders from around the world

Most surveyed companies and offices are based in Europe (63 %) followed by 40 % in North America and 7.4 % in Asia. Out of the total responses, most participants of the survey had the role of founder (65.9 %), CEO (50.4 %) CTO (18.5 %) and COO (1.5 %). A little over 30 % of the respondents stated that their company existed for over 14 years, followed by almost 20 % of the companies who’ve existed between 10 - 11 years. 60 % of the companies who filled in the survey have just one office, with 19.3 % two offices.

A little over a half (54.8 %) of the companies stated that they are a digital agency. 14.8 % define their profile as a software company with 10.4 % as a consulting agency.

Almost all (94.8 %) of the respondents said that their company provides web development. A majority of the companies shared that they provide visual design (65.9 %), user experience (68.1 %), system integration (67.4 %) or support (59.3 %). These answers are very similar to the results of last year’s survey.

The workfield of the Drupal agencies has become more industry specific

Drupal companies have clients in diverse industries. More than half (59.3 %) of the respondents reported to have Drupal clients in Charities & Non-Profit organisations. Other industries are Government & Public Administration (54.8 %), Healthcare & Medicine (47.4 %), Arts & Culture (41.5 %) and IT (40.7 %). Based on the responses, it can be stated that Drupal companies are becoming more industry specific. The Drupal Business Survey responses of the last three years show that each year, fewer companies have clients in every industry. The outcome of the surveys show that the industries of Media and Banking & Insurance have had the biggest drop, while Healthcare & Medicine and Consulting have grown the most from the first survey.

Compared to 2016/2017/2018:

Biggest challenges in recruitment, client acquisition and Drupal 8 adoption

The outcome of the survey shows that in the last 12 months the Drupal agencies faced three main challenges, namely recruitment (24 %), client acquisition/pipeline (17 %) and conversion to Drupal 8 (14 %). These three challenges are analysed in the following parts of this article.

Recruitment – a war on Drupal talent

The Drupal agencies wanting to grow, know the importance of Drupal talent. For years, the demand for Drupal talent has exceeded the supply. According to this year’s survey, agency leaders see recruiting new employees as their biggest challenge. That’s nothing new; the lack of developers is a universally known challenge, that applies to not only Drupal developers. According to research from The App Association, there are 223,000 job openings for software developers in the US alone. And in Finland alone there is a shortage of 10 000 developers (source: Code from Finland).

One of the recipients describes their challenge of the last 12 months as:

A war on talent.

But still: the demand for digital services is great and the stakes are high. Agencies simply need manpower to continue to grow their business (59 %): "We hit a productivity ceiling and need to expand if we were ever to have capacity to provide for further growth." The lack of Drupal talent can be a threat for new projects: "We lose out on opportunities because our capacity is too low."

The answers of the surveyed pointed out that scarcity and financial compensation continue to be the main obstacles for attracting employees with experience and/or (highly) skilled in Drupal. A lot of the respondents mention that senior developers are typically very expensive to hire, while junior developers match the budget.

Every year we hear that Drupal agencies can't find talent. What they often mean is that they can't find talent at the rates they are willing to pay.

Most of the Drupal talent is either completely new to Drupal or already skilled and working, requiring a strong incentive to change positions.

However, despite the difficulties, 80 % of the agency leaders did hire new employees in the last year and managed to meet their Drupal talent needs, mostly by actively prospecting and hunting Drupal specialists (51.5 %). According to the respondents, it also seems to be a good strategy to motivate and educate people for Drupal who are not familiar with Drupal before, but are willing to learn: agencies hire graduates/juniors (47 %) or hire experienced developers (35.8 %) and train them in Drupal themselves.

Opportunities in collaborating with education institutes

Respondents advise to collaborate more with education institutes and other organizations to prepare interested and motivated people to become the Drupal experts of tomorrow. As one suggests:

We need further engagement between tertiary institutes and industry to ensure open-source platforms and industry standard development methodologies are taught to address the medium term skills shortage.

One respondent told us they even started their own Academy in collaboration with tech universities.

Changed Drupal playing field brings new challenges

Over the last couple of years, Drupal has undergone major changes. For one, Drupal 8 was released.
Also, Drupal starts to play more and more a role as the backend for headless or decoupled CMSs, Drupal is evolving towards an API-first platform and is competing head to head with proprietary platforms like Sitecore and Adobe Experience Manager.

These changes inevitably impact the Drupal market. It’s therefore no surprise that the second biggest challenge (17 %) for agencies in the last 12 months had to do with generating leads for Drupal focused projects or the acquisition of new and suitable customers. This raises different reactions. It is clear that the changed playing field of Drupal benefits certain companies, while others struggle with the change:

The landscape is changing seismically. We are seeing smaller competitors shrink whilst those delivering enterprise and business critical services are prospering. With Drupal 8 we are winning in many situations where platform decisions are open.

The (other) challenge we've been facing is the perceived lack of interest in Drupal overall, specifically on the commerce side. We've been working hard to educate the market on the viability of open source for commerce using Drupal, but have a lot more work to do to get a foot in the door in that enterprise market.

One of the companies also seemed to notice a slower growth on the Drupal market:

Drupal is facing competition from several directions: WordPress is no longer a blog platform but equals Drupal. Increased demand for static site in combination with cloud CMS-es and developers losing interest in Drupal in favor of .JS and lightweight PHP frameworks.

JS-based frameworks are more in demand and PHP is losing its appeal.

Decoupled: We see a role for Drupal in the decoupled world, however we are still behind on what Drupal should deliver to be an API backend first choice.

Average deal size of Drupal projects increased

It is striking that although the client acquisition seemed to be a major challenge for the respondents, a little over half of the Drupal agencies (51.5 %) saw their Drupal project average deal size increasing, with 36.6 % whose average deal size stayed roughly the same and 12 percent (11.9 %) experienced a decrease. This seems to indicate that Drupal projects are becoming bigger and bigger.

As someone mentioned:

We see larger and larger deals opening up in the Drupal space. The role played by Acquia is significant in the growth of Drupal in the Enterprise space.

We are still seeing growing demand for Drupal, especially among large/ enterprise organisations.

Drupal agencies seize new opportunities

In response to the changes within the Drupal market, some agencies have found new opportunities with Drupal by developing new business models.

The survey results show that 34.1% of the respondents did not change their business model in the last year. However 28.9 % expanded their services beyond building Drupal sites whilst 15.1% of the agencies chose to become more specialized (focus on specific vertical or industry). Main reason to change their business model was to grow their pipeline better/faster (58.2 %), identification of a better business model (51.6 %) or changing market conditions (50.4 %).

On the one hand, there are the Drupal companies who expand their business by offering new services like consultation or strategic work:

We are helping more agency and merchant teams adopt Drupal Commerce specifically for Drupal 8 than ever before. They have a strong desire to do things "the right way", which means they're thinking more strategically long term.

And on the other hand, you have the Drupal agencies who believe that specialization is the answer to keep the pipeline full instead of offering a full-stack service to attract new clients.

More specialized expertise and strategy are valued more than full stacks development services.

But the decision from companies to make a change in the business model has more reasons. The agencies who expanded their services also mentioned that they saw a shift in demand from their clients. In other words, the (Drupal) market has changed and those who adapt, have a good chance of succeeding:

Clients are no longer looking just for software development services. They want the service provider to be deeply involved in the engagement and take responsibility for the business outcomes. They want the vendors to come higher up in the value chain.

Even mid-market business leaders are realizing that digital is more than a website. They are seeking to use digital for new revenue streams or to reduce expenses. We have completely revamped our services to offer high level strategic consulting services that address the people, process and technology that affects our client organizations.

Open source and recommendations help Drupal win in the CMS battle

The competition in the CMS business has become tough, and clients are more aware of the opportunities of different CMSs. This has led to many companies expanding their set of technologies and portfolios, as one of the respondents mentioned:

There's no CMS we can use as a silver bullet.

The survey shows that Drupal has a lot of qualities that clients need and search for in a digital platform. The respondents shared that the fact that Drupal is open source is the main reason for clients for choosing Drupal (67.4 %), followed by 56.3 % who said that Drupal was chosen because of the agencies’ recommendation. Other reason are because clients are already familiar with Drupal (54.8 %), the CMS’s flexibility (49.6 %) or reputation (42.2 %).

The shift to Drupal 8 has been rocky but brought significant benefits to some companies

The third main challenge (14 %) of the Drupal companies was the conversion to Drupal 8. The upgrade from one major version of Drupal to the next (e.g. from Drupal 7 to Drupal 8) asked much effort, a steep learning curve and a difficult upgrade path. Introducing new technology in general – not just Drupal – will always have the risk of facing some sort of a challenge. Whether it’s a delay in introducing new features, unexpected security risks or maybe a more difficult learning curve. One of the agencies stated:

Adopting Drupal 8 and Drupal Commerce 2 [were the biggest challenges]. There was a significant learning curve for our team and many of the modules (including the ones we were in control of) weren't ready to roll out complete commerce solutions to clients we were committed to.

Another company told us:

We have been working with Drupal 8 since beginning of 2016. Since our clients mostly fit in the small business category, we have struggled to push our project budgets high enough to be profitable on Drupal 8 projects, as we were on Drupal 7 projects. It's not easy to say what all the reasons are, but Composer is finicky, major modules weren't ready for the first year or more, security updates are more hassle because of more changes, and the increased bugs and missing features required work-arounds. Against our desires, economics are pushing many projects to Wordpress for its page builders and many plugins. On the bright side, the current Drupal initiatives are exciting!

2018 has brought strong growth but we diversified due to slow adoption in 2016/2017. Drupal can learn from this to prevent the same from happening with the launch of Drupal 9 (more quickly available information / modules).

Dries Buytaert, founder and project lead of Drupal, states: ‘These kind of growing pains are not unfamiliar and one of the key reasons that Drupal has been successful is because we always made big, forward-looking changes. And as a result Drupal is one of very few CMSs that has stayed relevant for 15+ years. We see a way to keep innovating while providing a smooth upgrade path and learning curve from Drupal 8 to Drupal 9.’ Right now, the DA works with united forces to make future Drupal upgrades smoother and much simpler than previous upgrades with faster releases with easy upgrades and a smoother learning curve.

Conclusion

The competition on the digital market is and remains strong. New Drupal talent is needed to ensure response to the demand for Drupal. The major changes that Drupal has undergone in the last few years had an impact on client acquisition and the amount of new Drupal projects for the Drupal agencies.

The outcome of the survey shows that the Drupal business community is resourceful and capable of adapting to the continuous changing market by using different strategies. On the one hand, there are the Drupal companies who become full-stack agencies while others believe that specialization is the answer.

One thing is certain: clients want the best CMS for their company. ‘There’s no CMS we can use as a silver bullet’ one agency told us. And although that might be the case, we can still continue to aim for Drupal to become that silver bullet.

-----

See the 2017 survey results.

For more information, please contact Janne Kalliola (janne@exove.fi) or Michel van Velde (michel.vanvelde@oneshoe.com)

About Exove

Exove delivers digital growth. We help our clients to grow their digital business by designing and building solutions with agile manner, service design methodologies, and open technologies. Our clients include Sanoma, Fiskars, Neste, Informa, Trimble, and Finnlines. We serve also start-up companies, unions and public sector. Exove has offices in Helsinki, Oulu and Tampere, Finland; Tallinn, Estonia; and London, United Kingdom. For more information, please visit www.exove.com.

About One Shoe

One Shoe is an integrated advertising and digital agency with more than 10 years experience in Drupal. With more than 40 specialists, One Shoe combines strategy, UX, design, advertising, web and mobile development to deliver unique results for international clients like DHL, Shell, Sanofi, LeasePlan, MedaPharma and many more. For more information, please visit www.oneshoe.com.

About the Drupal Association

The Drupal Association is dedicated to fostering and supporting the Drupal project, the community and its growth. The Drupal Association helps the Drupal community with funding, infrastructure, education, promotion, distribution and online collaboration at Drupal.org. For more information, please visit drupal.org/association.

Categories: Drupal CMS

Acro Media: Comments, Reviews and Content Moderation Workflows

Tue, 09/25/2018 - 11:24

The Urban Hipster Drupal Commerce demo site was built to showcase what Drupal 8 and Commerce related modules can do. While the main focus has been Commerce, recently I started enhancing the content side of the site, mainly the blog. After all, Drupal is a content publishing platform at its core, so why not show how content and commerce can work on the same platform together. In the ecommerce world, that’s actually a pretty big deal!

In this Tech Talk video, I’ll show you how the Drupal core Comments module is used for blog commenting and product reviews. I also go into detail on how you can configure a role based publishing workflow using core’s Workflows and Content Moderation modules.

Comments and reviews

All of the blog posts and products on the demo site use the core Comments module for customer feedback. This allows any level of user (anonymous, authenticated, etc.) to add comments or reviews to these content items. The configuration and permissions for the Comments module controls whether or not the comments need to be approved by an administrator before they appear on the site. When logged in, an administrator who has permissions to manage the comments can use both the frontend interface as well as a backend interface for deleting, approving, editing and finally replying to the comments.

Like any content entity in Drupal, comments are fieldable. This means that you can configure fields to allow for additional functionality for your comments. It’s not covered in this video, but it’s worth mentioning that this is how I was able to get a 5 star review system easily integrated into the product comments.

Content moderation workflows

Drupal core also has a couple modules for letting you define a process for adding specific types of content to your site. The Urban Hipster blog is now setup to be an example for this. 

The first aspect to configure is the workflow. Workflows is where you determine what content will make use of the workflow, the “states” that the content will transition through, and finally the transitions that can happen at any given state. These things all need to be configured first before moving on to permissions.

The second aspect is assigning role based permissions to use the workflow. Permissions for workflows are found in the usual permissions backend page where all other permissions are set. Each workflow transition has a permission attached to it and so you just simply check the role that can perform each transition. You can create new roles if you need to.

View the live example

As mentioned, the Urban Hipster Drupal Commerce is an example of what can be done. Try it out yourself and see what you think. Here are some username/password combinations that will let you check out the workflows in action. The site refreshes every night so you don’t need to worry about breaking anything.

Role based workflow logins:

  • Blog author: blogauthor/blogauthor
  • Blog reviewer: blogreviewer/blogreviewer
  • Blog publisher: blogpublisher/blogpublisher

Administrator login (for viewing the configuration):

  • Administrator: demoadmin/demoadmin
Categories: Drupal CMS

Chocolate Lily: Drupal distributions, blocks, and subthemes

Tue, 09/25/2018 - 09:31

In Part 4 of a current series on managing shared configuration for Drupal distributions we looked at needs and options for altering configuration provided by extensions (modules, themes, or the site's installation profile). We covered common needs such as altering user roles to add permissions. But when it comes to altering configuration, blocks are a special case--hence this bonus installment!

When you create a site based on a distribution, there may be a requirement to customize the look and feel. The usual solution is to create a custom subtheme for the site; see the drupal.org documentation on subtheming. That way you can get everything the distribution provides but give the site a custom presentation.

Using a custom theme will work fine for most configuration. But it won't work for configuration that includes the theme itself as a dependency--like blocks.

Categories: Drupal CMS

DrupalCon News: All Welcome at DrupalCon

Tue, 09/25/2018 - 08:47

DrupalCon gathers a range of citizens of the Drupal ecosystem to learn, share, and collaborate together. The value of the conference is in the perspectives, energy and diversity of experiences participants share. No matter who you are or where you’re from, you’re invited to participate in DrupalCon

DrupalCon began setting goals to overtly increase diversity starting with DrupalCon Baltimore 2017. This continued in the planning of DrupalCon Nashville 2018, and is a priority for DrupalCon Seattle 2019. 

Categories: Drupal CMS

Zivtech: Challenges of Front End Development

Tue, 09/25/2018 - 06:21

With phone in hand, laptop in bag and earbuds in place, the typical user quickly scans multiple sites. If your site takes too long to load, your visitor is gone. If your site isn’t mobile friendly, you’ve lost precious traffic. That’s why it’s essential to build well organized, mobile ready sites.

But how do you get good results?

  • Understand whom you’re building for
  • Employ the right frameworks
  • Organize your codebase
  • Make your life a lot easier with a CSS preprocessor

Let’s look at each of these points.

Design For Mobile

When you look at usage statistics, the trend is clear. This chart shows how mobile device usage has increased each year. 
 

Read more
Categories: Drupal CMS

Drupal Modules: The One Percent: Drupal Modules: The One Percent — Dynamic Entity Reference (video tutorial)

Tue, 09/25/2018 - 05:55
Drupal Modules: The One Percent — Dynamic Entity Reference (video tutorial) NonProfit Tue, 09/25/2018 - 07:55 Episode 45

Here is where we bring awareness to Drupal modules running on less than 1% of reporting sites. Today we'll look R Dynamic Entity Reference, a module which permits you to reference multiple types of entities from a single reference field.

Categories: Drupal CMS

PreviousNext: Using the new Media Library in Drupal 8.6

Tue, 09/25/2018 - 00:56

Drupal 8.6 has shipped with the Media Library! It’s just one part of the latest round of improvements from the Media Initiative, but what a great improvement! Being brand new it’s still in the “experimental” module state but we’ve set it up on this website to test it out and are feeling pretty comfortable with its stability.

by Rikki Bochow / 25 September 2018

That said, I highly encourage you test it thoroughly on your own site before enabling any experimental module on a production site. Don’t just take my word for it :)

What it adds

The Media Library has two main parts to it...

Grid Listing

There’s the Grid Listing at /admin/content/media, which takes precedence over the usual table of media items (which is still available under the “Table” tab). The grid renders a new Media Library view mode showing the thumbnail and compact title, as well as the bulk edit checkbox.

Field Widget

Then there’s the field widget! The field widget can be set on the “Manage Form Display” page of any entity with a Media Reference Field. Once enabled, an editor can either browse existing media (by accessing the Grid Listing in a modal) or create a new media item (utilising the new Media Library form mode - which is easy to customise).

The widget is very similar to what the ‘Inline Entity Form’ module gave you, especially when paired with the Entity Browsers IEF submodule. But the final result is a much nicer display and in general feels like a nicer UX. Plus it’s in core so you don’t need to add extra modules!

The widget also supports bulk upload which is fantastic. It respects the Media Reference Fields cardinality, so limit it to one - and only file can be uploaded or selected from the browser. Allow more than one and upload or select up to that exact number.  The field even tells you how many you can add and how many you have left. And yes, the field supports drag and drop :)

What is doesn’t add WYSIWYG embedding

WYSIWYG embed support is now being worked on for a future release of Drupal 8 core, you can follow this Meta issue to keep track of the progress. It sounds like some version of Entity Embed (possibly limited to Media) will make it’s way in and some form of CKEditor plugin or button will be available to achieve something similar to what the Media Entity Browser, Entity Browser, Entity Embed and Embed module set provides currently.

Until then though, we’ve been working on integrating the Media Libraries Grid Listing into a submodule of Media Entity Browser to provide editors with the UX improvements that came with Media Library but keeping the same WYSIWYG embed process (and the contrib modules behind it) they’re currently used to (assuming they’re already using Media Entity Browser, of course). More on this submodule below.

This is essentially a temporary solution until the Media Initiative team and those who help out on their issue queue (all the way from UX through to dev) have the time and mental space to get it into core. It should hopefully have all same the bulk upload features the field widget has, it might even be able to support bulk embedding too!

View mode or image style selectors for editors

Site builders can set the view mode of the rendered media entity from the manage display page, which in turn allows you to set an image style for that view mode, but editors can’t change this per image (without needing multiple different Media reference fields).

There is work on supporting this idea for images uploaded via CKEditor directly, which has nothing to do with Media, but I think it would be a nice feature for Media embedding via WYSIWYG as well. Potentially also for Media Reference Fields. But by no means a deal breaker.

Advanced cropping

From what I can gather there are no plans to add any more advanced cropping capabilities into core. This is probably a good thing since cropping requirements can differ greatly and we don’t want core to get too big. So contrib will still be your goto for this. Image Widget Crop is my favourite for this, but there’s also the simpler Focal Point.

Testing out the Media Entity Browser submodule

You can test out the submodule from the patch on this issue and let us know what you think! Once the patch is added, enable the submodule then edit your existing Entity Browsers and swap the View widget over to the “Media Entity Browser (Media Library)” view.

It shouldn’t matter if you’ve customised your entity browser. If you’ve added something like Dropzone for drag-and-drop support it *should* still work (if not, check the Dropzone or Entity Browser issue queues). If you’ve customised the view it uses however, you might need to redo those customisations on the new view.

I also like updating the Form Mode of the Entity Browsers IEF widget to use the new Media Library form display, which I always pair back to just the essential fields (who really needs to manually set the author and created time of uploaded media?).

You still can’t embed more than one media item at a time. But at least now you also can’t select more than one item when browsing so that’s definitely an improvement.

Plus editors will experience a fairly consistent UX between browsing and uploading media on fields as they do via the WYSIWYG.

Once setup and tested (ensuring you’ve updated any Media Reference Fields to use the new Media Library widget too) you can safely disable the base Media Entity Browser module and delete any unused configuration - it should just be the old “Media Entity Browser” view.

Please post any feedback on the issue itself so we can make sure it’s at its best before rolling another release of the module.

Happy days!

I hope you have as much fun setting up the Media Library as I did. If you want to contribute to the Media Initiative I’m sure they’ll be more than happy for the help! They’ve done a fantastic job so far but there’s still plenty left to do.

Tagged Media in Core, CKEditor
Categories: Drupal CMS

Matt Glaman: Xdebug over the command line with DDEV

Mon, 09/24/2018 - 14:00
Xdebug over the command line with DDEV Mon, 09/24/2018 - 16:00 mglaman

I moved over to DDEV for my local development stack back in February. One of my favorite things is the ease of using Xdebug. You can configure Xdebug to always be enabled, or turn it on and off as needed (my preferred method.) When you have Xdebug enabled, it also enables it for any PHP scripts executed over the command line. That means you can debug your Drush or Drupal Console scripts like a breeze!

This article is based on using Xdebug within PhpStorm, as it is my primary IDE.

Categories: Drupal CMS

Chocolate Lily: Managing Shared Configuration Part 6: Packaging Configuration with the Features Module

Mon, 09/24/2018 - 09:26

This is the sixth installment in a series presenting work on shared configuration that comes out of the Drutopia initiative and related efforts, beginning with Part 1, Configuration Providers.

Our main focus has been updating configuration from distributions--specifically, the question:

How can I update my site so that I have all the latest configuration changes from a distribution--while still retaining any customizations I made?

Updates are well and good. But before packages of configuration can be updated, they need to be produced and managed in the first place. In Drupal 8 as in previous major versions, that task is the domain of the Features module.

The Drupal 8 version of Features is a complete rewrite with major improvements over previous versions. If you're familiar with previous versions but haven't used Features in Drupal 8 this backgrounder will bring you up to speed.

Despite being a development-focused tool, Features is in the top 40 or so most installed contributed Drupal 8 modules. Features is used in building and maintaining several of the more-used Drupal 8 distributions including Open Social, Varbase, Open Church, and Quick Start. It's a key build tool for the Gitlab-hosted Drutopia project.

In this installment we'll cover Features in Drupal 8, including how to use it to produce a distribution.

Categories: Drupal CMS

Drop Guard: How does Drop Guard know what to do? About Update behaviors & Events

Mon, 09/24/2018 - 09:15
How does Drop Guard know what to do? About Update behaviors & Events

A tool only performs as good as it’s configured and handled.
This post gives detailed insights into the important touch points of the Drop Guard actions you need to configure in order to benefit from a smooth and individual update pipeline. 

Drupal Planet Drupal Automation Drop Guard QA Drop Guard recipes
Categories: Drupal CMS

Mediacurrent: Networking with Love: Why Authenticity Matters for Your Drupal Business

Mon, 09/24/2018 - 06:37

Culture. It's the only truly sustainable competitive advantage for a Drupal business.  But what does that look like in action? I've seen firsthand how that culture extends far beyond Mediacurrent's business and customer service approach, shaping the way we network. 

We have all been to a party, lunch, or even coffee and cookies with a vendor trying to make a connection with you or your company. You can separate all of these into two basic categories: those that you walk into and have fun and those you walk into defensively because you know the goal is to pitch a sale to you.

Hosting a networking event can be a costly endeavor for your company and there is no guarantee that you will receive a high percentage of return on your investment. Between your time investment, activities, and potentially cost of a space, expenses can begin to pile up quickly.

Hitting that optimal zone where customers or potential clients will feel relaxed and are open to conversation is key to reaching your maximum potential for ROI for your event. There are several ways you can do this, but it all starts with one word.

Passion.

Passion for what you love is the difference between just hosting an event and connecting with the community in your field of business. The goal is to show your passion for what you do, and the community you are in -- in our case, the open source and Drupal communities.  

Take the Dave and Paul approach for example. Over DrupalCon 2018, they threw an amazing after party hosted by Mediacurrent. Everything down to the invites was inclusive to all (not just those with purchasing power) with the message of “Hey, we are throwing a party, come to hang out! Hope to see you there.” Every single person was treated like a friend.

While at the party, the sales team focused on just interacting, listening to people’s experience and thanking the community for showing up. This approach made people feel so comfortable that if they had a sales question, they would just ask.

When a person feels welcomed, unpressured and a part of the group, then it's easy for them to make the leap from conference attendee to a potential client. Remember: you and everyone who attends your function is a part of the same community. If you view them as just potential sales, then this will be translated into your body language and verbiage.

In closing, being a part of the Mediacurrent team has reaffirmed for me the value of networking with authenticity. Hosting your event with the passion you have for the community you are a part of will shine through to everyone who attends and solidify you in their mind as the right partner for their project.

Categories: Drupal CMS

Agiledrop.com Blog: Interview with Mike Gifford, Drupal 8 Core Accessibility maintainer

Mon, 09/24/2018 - 05:21
This week we talked with Mike Gifford. Read about what his company is striving to achieve, where he thinks has been a lot of movement in the last 2 years regarding Drupal and what contribution to open source is he proud of. READ MORE
Categories: Drupal CMS

OpenSense Labs: Adopting DevOps Model For Drupal Development

Sun, 09/23/2018 - 21:13
Adopting DevOps Model For Drupal Development Shankar Mon, 09/24/2018 - 09:43

Software and the internet have metamorphosed the world and its industries ranging from shopping to entertainment to banking. It is no longer something that just supports a business. Instead, it has become an integral part of every part of a business. Organisations interact with their customers through software that is delivered in the form of digital service or application and on all kinds of devices. They also leverage software to enhance operational efficiencies by transforming every part of the value chain. This is where DevOps plays a key role.


DevOps is having an astronomical role to play in the rapid IT service delivery mechanisms. And when it comes to Drupal development, DevOps can be instrumental in streamlining project delivery involving Drupal. Before we traverse deeper into how Drupal can benefit from DevOps, let’s look at this terminology called DevOps.

Evolution of DevOps


Sometime between 2007 and 2008, when IT operations and software development communities were vocal about some of the calamitous level of dysfunction in the industry, DevOps started to coalesce.
 
Developers and IT/Operations professionals had separate goals, separate department leadership, separate key performance indicators, and, most often than not, they worked on separate floors. As a result, isolated teams were only concerned about their own fiefdoms, long hours, botched-up releases and dissatisfied customers.

People like Patrick Dubois, Gene Kim and John Willis pioneered the evolution of DevOps model

‘There must be a better way’ was the notion that propelled the two communities coming together and talking about betterments in software deliveries. People like Patrick Dubois, Gene Kim and John Willis pioneered this conversation.
 
Therefore, what began in online forums and local meet-ups is now a significant theme in the software zeitgeist which is probably what brought you here!

What is DevOps and how does it work? "DevOps represent a change in IT culture, focusing on rapid IT service delivery through the adoption of agile, lean practices in the context of a system-oriented approach"

DevOps constitutes Dev which refers to software application development and Ops which denotes IT operations. DevOps is not a framework or a workflow but a culture that is overtaking the business world.

Gartner states that “DevOps represent a change in IT culture, focusing on rapid IT service delivery through the adoption of agile, lean practices in the context of a system-oriented approach. DevOps emphasizes people (and culture) and seeks to improve collaboration between operations and development teams. DevOps implementations utilize technology — especially automation tools that can leverage an increasingly programmable and dynamic infrastructure from a life cycle perspective”.

Development and operations teams are not siloed under a DevOps model. Sometimes, these two are teams are combined to form a single team where the engineers work across the entire application lifecycle ranging from development and testing to deployment and operations. Thus, engineers wind up developing a range of skills which are not limited to a single function.

Quality assurance and security teams may become more firmly incorporated in some DevOps models with development and operations and throughout the application lifecycle. When security becomes the point of focus for everyone on a DevOps team, this is sometimes called as DevSecOps.

These teams leverage practices for automating processes that have been, historically, manual and sluggish. They make use of tech stack and tooling which assist them while operating and evolving applications rapidly and reliably. These tools also help engineers autonomously accomplish tasks like deploying code or provisioning infrastructure thereby enhancing team’s velocity.

Benefits of DevOps Source: Algoworks

Incorporating DevOps into the business workflow brings in a lot of merits.

High velocity

Using DevOps, move at high velocity so that you can build digital innovations faster, adapt to altering markets better and grow more efficacious at driving business results. For instance, microservices and continuous delivery allow teams to take ownership of services and then swiftly release updates.

Scalability

Infrastructure and development processes can be operated and governed at scale. Automation and consistency assists in governing intricate and changing systems effectively and with less risk. For instance, infrastructure as a code assists in handling the development, testing and production environments in a repeatable and more efficacious manner.

Faster delivery

Enhance the frequency and pace of releases so that you can build innovate and improve your projects quicker. The faster you can release new features and fix bugs, the quicker you can respond to needs of customers and develop a competitive advantage. For instance, continuous integration and continuous delivery are the practices that can automate the release process right from the build stage to the deployment phase.

Reliable delivery

Quality of application updates and infrastructure alterations can be ensured so you can reliably deliver at a faster pace, thus, providing a positive experience to the end users. For instance, continuous integration and continuous delivery can be leveraged for testing each of the alterations and ensuring that it is functional and secure. Monitoring and logging practices assist you to be apprised of performance in real-time.

Security

DevOps model can be adopted without compromising on security by using automated compliance policies, fine-grained controls and configuration management mechanisms. For instance, defining and then tracking compliance at scale is possible using infrastructure as code and policy as code.

Collaborative efforts

More effective teams can be built as the DevOps model stresses on values such as ownership and accountability. Developers and operations team collaborate closely, share responsibilities, merge their workflows.

Best practices for the adoption of DevOps model Source: Cygnet Infotech

There are significant practices that help businesses to implement DevOps model in the best possible way and get the most out of it.

Performing small updates frequently

These updates are more incremental in nature in comparison to the occasional updates performed under traditional release practices. They assist teams to address bugs quicker as the teams can easily identify the last deployment that resulted in the error. Even though the cadence and size of updates may vary, the DevOps model helps in deploying updates more often than the firms who use traditional software development practices.

Using microservices architecture

Making use of microservices architecture helps firms in making their applications more pliable and allow faster innovation. Decoupling large, intricate systems into simple, autonomous projects is possible with microservices architecture. Applications are divided into many individual components or services where each of the services are scoped to a single purpose or function. They are operated independently of its peer services and the applications as a whole. Such an architecture minimises the coordination overhead of updating applications. When each of the services is paired with small, agile teams, businesses can move more swiftly.

Leveraging continuous integration and continuous delivery

Combination of microservices and enhanced release frequency might lead to numerous deployments which can pose operational hurdles. Hence, DevOps practices like continuous integration and continuous delivery help in resolving these issues and allow businesses to deliver faster.

Making use of infrastructure as code

Infrastructure automation practices like infrastructure as code and configuration management allows you to keep computing resources elastic and responsive to frequent alterations.

Monitoring and logging the workflow

Use of monitoring and logging allows the engineers to track the performance of applications and infrastructure thereby reacting swiftly to the issues.

Implementing DevOps model for Drupal development DevOps Dashboard Template | Source: Smartsheet

The DevOps movement is leading the way forward for higher quality Drupal projects, quicker delivery, happier team members, and satisfied clients for projects of any scale. A digital agency used a Drupal development process to outline key pieces to a reasonable, DevOps-based workflow irrespective of the hosting platform or the different tools you choose to use.

The DevOps movement is leading the way forward for higher quality Drupal projects, quicker delivery, happier team members, and satisfied clients for projects of any scale

The agency maintains a pre-configured Drupal 8 install profile that lives on Github which is also mirrored on Packagist. This helps in kickstarting all the new projects with a working theme, pre-configured content types, Media bundles, Paragraph bundles and other elements.

A solid local development workflow is integral to any continuous workflow environment. Developers build new features or fix bugs on their local machines and the alterations are pushed to Github for triggering several actions. The agency experimented with DrupalVM and Lando which offered easy, repeatable processes for enabling developers and contractors to easily spin up a local environment matching production environment.

For this agency, the build code for each project like composer.json and any custom modules or theme reside in Github. Every time a pull request is made, their code is automatically deployed to a continuous integration server and to a live web environment.

For incorporating modern DevOps techniques, it needed a programmable hosting platform to let developers and other systems like continuous integration server to automate and interact with the platform. It worked extensively with both Acquia and Pantheon hosting which offered a different set of tools.

It leveraged continuous integration server called Circle CI for automatically spin up and test a new version of the site every time the developer introduces a new functionality or a bug fix to the git repository.

Automated functionality tests are another important part of DevOps strategy which this agency used to a great extent. Each time a commit is pushed, a complete version of the site spins up on CircleCI which runs through a series of automated Behat tests for verifying key functionality. CircleCI automatically notifies the hosting environment if the tests pass thereby spinning up a new branch and a new copy of the site. When the Github pull request is submitted on that branch, the final CricleCI build is triggered. When the tests are successful, the code is automatically combined with the production site.

Future of DevOps

According to a Capgemini report, 60% of the companies have opted for DevOps model or are planning to do so eventually. That means DevOps is being widely accepted as a key component of a business strategy. As DevOps continues to grow, some of the future possibilities that are expected to transpire along with the increase in DevOps adoption is being outlined here.

Perpetual growth of DevSecOps

Much in the same way, DevOps has the objective of inculcating continuous delivery in the business workflow, DevSecOps expands this to include security. Looking forward, this trend of incorporation of security into the DevOps pipeline will make businesses more inclusive with security tools and practices becoming part of the early development cycle.

DevOps and IoT

Increasingly, hardware manufacturers working on IoT devices would see software as a significant component of their project. This comprises the integration of DevOps into their business workflow making it absolutely compulsory to have people perpetually work on both hardware and software designs.

Monitoring to become the new testing

At the current and future scale, it is a formidable task and impractical to test all conceivable scenarios at the end of the product cycle. Rather than doing this, it is much more worthy to monitor for live issues and rectify them in short cycles. Testing puts a limitation on what you may find as it required you to think of certain problems to look out for.

But, monitoring will bring up issues as they happen. Adoption of monitoring will permit companies to understand the way their software runs in real situations thereby offering quick information about their systems.

Kubernetes to become standard for cluster computing

More companies will join the project and offer services on top of their operating systems. Moreover, extensions will be made for running applications in the cloud. Many of the major cloud providers are starting to provide Kubernetes as a service. Even a serverless Kubernetes will be on offer where nodes are managed by the cloud provider thereby creating another level of abstraction and simplicity for the developers. This general advancement within Kubernetes will lead to an enhanced adoption of advanced monitoring, logging and metric studying within companies.

Removal of (server) operating systems as we know them

This trend links back to Kubernetes becoming a main operating system for the cloud and clusters/containers that means operating systems would be replaced by the ones that can run containers in a Kubernetes cluster. Furthermore, operating systems for hosts will face implications from containers as in these new environments they will no longer have a host.

Conclusion

Continued growth of DevOps into new industries is opening doors for incorporating new departments such as security, enhancement in product monitoring and the standardisation of Kubernetes for cluster computing. DevOps and its accompanying benefits will become the norm as the integration of more departments into the beginning of the product pipeline would transpire and a rise in monitoring would improve solutions and designs.

DevOps strategy would have a positive impact on Drupal development as well and improve the project timeline and delivery. Opensense Labs strongly believe in the digital innovation and can help you provide amazing digital experiences through Drupal development.

Tell us how you want us to be part of your digital transformation journey at hello@opensenselabs.com.

blog banner blog image DevOps Drupal DevOps Blog Type Articles Is it a good read ? On
Categories: Drupal CMS

Finalist Drupal Blog: Improving the editor experience (as seen at Drupal Europe). Part two.

Sun, 09/23/2018 - 15:00

This is the second post about the latest developments regarding the editorial experience in Drupal 8 based on a couple of presentations at Drupal Europe 2018.

Gutenberg editor

One project that could make a huge difference in the way the editors perceive Drupal could be Gutenberg.

Gutenberg was being presented at Drupal Europe by the Norwegian agency Frontkom. This contrib module integrates Gutenberg, the React javascript editor that originated from Wordpress, into Drupal.

Gutenberg can be enabled on a per content type level and replaces the node edit form with a blank canvas where the editor can create content using Gutenberg blocks as shown in the demo.

By default, various types of blocks are available to the editor, such as headings, text paragraphs, images and Drupal blocks (like the ones for example provided by the Views module). Other Gutenberg blocks can be custom made and the authors are about to launch the Gutenberg Cloud, a library from where blocks via a UI in Drupal can be installed on your website.

What remained unclear form the presentation was how Gutenberg blocks are being stored in the database and whether the individual blocks can be retrieved in a structured way for example to expose it as a REST resource.

The plan is to launch Gutenberg at the end of this year.

The full presentation is available on Youtube:

Improve Paragraphs with lesser known features

More and more site builders implement Paragraphs to let the users build structured content in a very flexible way. Therefore it was great to see Milos Bovan of MD Systems demonstrate at Drupal Europe-about a couple of lesser known features.

Using the following features you can make Paragraphs even better than it already is.

  • Use the style plugin to give each paragraph a specific style that can be used for CSS styling. The style can be chosen from the node edit form.
  • Add paragraphs to a library so you can reuse them elsewhere in the site. A listing is available to show all the paragraphs that are available in the library. You can promote a paragraph to the library and change it once to have it automatically updated everywhere in the site. If you dont want that then unlink it from the library so that the changes do not affect the paragraphs elsewhere.
  • Use the drag and drop mode to make it easier to order the paragraphs on de entity edit form. In combination with the collapse mode you can drastically improve the paragraphs UI which, often can be quite messy.
  • Organize a long messy list of paragraph types creating type groups. In the UI these groups will become available as separate tabs and by using icons for the types you can make the UI a bit more intuitive.
  • Convert paragraph types. This will allow you for example to convert an existing unstructured text field into a structured card paragraph type.
Multistep forms

Multi Step forms are an important feature of a website or application as it gives users a much better experience when submitting their data. It increases the users motivation to finish filling in the form leading in the end to a much higher conversion rate.

The contrib module form steps seems to to a good job in managing the complexity of the multistep form.

Several contributed modules among them Webform, allow building a multistep form but they are often limited in scope, hard to customize or are simply only available for Drupal 7. Alternatively a multistep form can be achieved by writing your own custom code which could at some point lead to an unmaintainable situation.

The form step module on the other allows creating multistep forms by leveraging the new Drupal 8 core feature of form modes. Much like view mode, form modes are different ways of presenting a drupal form (for example a user profile form or a node edit form).

The Form steps modules, as demonstrated at Drupal Europe by the Drupal agency Actency , lets you create workflows where that are collections of different form modes so that you can present the user with a multistep form. Each step in the workflow is linked to a particular form mode of a specific content type. As a result the user creates several nodes (possibly from different content types) when he follows the steps of the multiforms.

The workflow also manages the progress bar of the multistep form, giving the user the option to navigate through the different steps of the form.

The form step seems to provide a robust solution to a feature that many of us would like implement or should starting to implement in our Drupal websites.

Categories: Drupal CMS

Hook 42: Considerations for Drupal and HubSpot Integration

Sun, 09/23/2018 - 13:10

HubSpot provides a powerful combination of customer relationship management (CRM) features and insights that can help organize and maintain business processes tied to customers. Drupal is a key digital platform for businesses, especially for inbound customer engagement, marketing initiatives, and 3rd party integrations. The two systems are highly complementary and deserve consideration for logically separating the responsibilities of digital engagement and customer relationship management. Additionally, both HubSpot and Drupal are very flexible and customizable. As an example, both systems support extensible data structures through custom fields in HubSpot and through the entity system in Drupal that allow for implementation-specific data to be stored and maintained.

Categories: Drupal CMS

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